psychology- child psychology and questionnaires

  • Created by: sarah
  • Created on: 24-11-12 14:48
Definition of Attachment
it's a strong reciprocal bond that develops over time between an infant and a primary care giver
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What is a sensitive parent?
A parent who knows what the child wants
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Evolutionary... BKC
Natural selection, a child had to use social releases in the past to gain a bond so they wouldn't be abandoned
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Adaptive... BKC
What things are useful in survival - e.g. attachment to a parent
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Social Releases... BKC
Infant uses these when they see faces to gain love... crying, smiling, cooing, finger grip etc
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Object Seeking Instincts... BKC
Children have a generic ability to spot facial features
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Safe Base for Exploration... BKC
if a child has a monotropy they will be confident to explore as they will believe their monotropy will always look after them if they get in trouble
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Cognitive development... BKC
If the child has a strong bond and has a safe base for exploration they can explore more and learn more things. explore more= higher intelligence and IQ
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Monotropy... BKC
A reciprocal bond with one person
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Schemas... BKC
Like files in the brain for different things that the individual will refer to throughout their life... eg a file for relationships etc
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Internal Working Model... BKC
Reffering to schema for all future relationships
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A02 Points of Bowlby's theory-
first theory to realise how essential attachment is & first theory to create a detailed account of how attachment. Modern theories based on it. Lots of evidence supported it - Harlow & Glasgow study. Caribbean family contradicted monotropy.
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Caribbean Extended family & Efe tribe from Zaire arguments- Bowlby theory A02 points.
little evidence to support monotropy and lots of infants have more than one attachment -the Caribbean extended family. Bowlby used the Efe tribe as a counterargument- child would receive food from other people but when sad they would go to monotropy
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Harlow's study - supports Bowlby, goes against Dollard and Miller
had two wire monkeys 1 was soft and 1 was wire but had food. The monkey would become attached to soft comforting monkey - softness more important than food. these monkeys had problems with relationships later on in life.
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The Glasgow Study by Schaffer and Emerson
a longitudinal study in working class area of glasgow, they found children became attached at 7-11 months. They did not become attached to the person who fed them most but the person who interacted with them most.
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Child Care before Bowlby
people followed behavioural theories and believed a child only needed to be looked after physically but did not support the child emotionally - now its apparent how important sensitivity is and how important a bond is.
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Dollard and Miller's theory
they were behavioural psychologists who believed that attachment was through learning not human genetics. They created the two behavioural explanations of attachment; classical and operant conditioning.
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Classical conditioning
is learning through association. food causes child to feel happiness baby associated the pcg with happiness and the pcgand baby become attached
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Classical conditioning diagram.....
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Operant Conditioning
is learning through punishments and rewards. influenced by skinner's mice. baby is hungry, feels discomfort. pcg gives baby food, food becomes primary reinforcer. baby notices pcg gives it food and pcg - secondary reinforcer. pcg & infant attached
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AO2 points for Dollard and Miller behavioural theory
not enough evidence to support it unlike Bowlby. More evidence to show that emotional needs are more important than physical ones. its reducionist- says sole reason is food/learning- love? its deterministic- it says if you feed baby you'll be attachd
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Questionnaire- filler questions
questions that disguise the psychologists true aims- stops demand characteristics
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Questionnaire- questions should begin by..
being non-threatening, challenging questions come after trust is estacblished
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Questionnaire- confidentiality
if you reassure people that their answers are anonymous and confidential, people are less likely to lie due to social desirability bias
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Questionnaire- a good question should be
clear and in plain English. unbiased with no leading questions
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Questionnaire- open questions
participants give own questions than choose one. qualitative data is produced. accurate and rich data. cannot analyse it statistically.
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Questionnaire- positives?
less investigator effects, quick and easy, collect alot of respondents, cheap, people might be more likely to be honest as its paper based.
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Questionnaire- negatives?
meanings can get lost using closed questions. psychologist doesnt get other clues off individual eg body language. people might cheat/lie/be lazy. they dont know if theyve lied.only extroverts will answer. not everyone will fill them in
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Questionnaire- closed questions
give participant set answers to choose from, participants are forced to answer- answers may not reflect their views. it gives quantitative data.
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Mary Ainsworth
shown individual differences in attachment, there are different strengths of attachment. she shown this through her study 'the strange situation'
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aim of mary ainsworths study
how infants react under conditions of mild stress (separation from caregiver and presence of a stranger) and novelty (new room and toys)
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who took part in mary ainsworths study
106 middle class infants (b), their mothers (m) and a stranger (s)
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where did mary ainsworths study take place
in a room that's separated into squares so the psychologist can see how many squares child moves. a mirror is placed in the other room so the psychologist can observe and infant is unaware of someone in the other room.
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mary ainsworths study- stages 1-5
1)m & b enter room 2) m sits on chair, responds if infant wants her 3)s enters talks to m approaches b with toy, m leaves 4)s leaves b playing, s approaches with toy if b inactive 5)m enters & waits for b to greet her, s leaves then m leaves
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mary ainsworths study- stages 6-8
6)b alone 7) s comes back 8) m returns, s leaves. reunion behaviour recorded.
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mary ainsworths study- how many types of attachment did she find
3- secure (b), insecure avoidant (a), insecure resistant
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mary ainsworths study- type B results
exploration- high, stranger anxiety- high, separation anxiety- some easy to soothe, caregiver behaviour- sensitive. 66% of infants were this.
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mary ainsworths study- type A results
exploration-high, stranger anxiety-low, separation anxiety- indifferent, behaviour at reunion-avoid contact, caregiver behaviour- may ignore infant. 22% of infants were this.
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mary ainsworths study- type C results
exploration- low, stranger anxiety-high, separation anxiety-distressed, behaviour at reunion-seeks and rejects, caregiver behaviour- ambivalent. 12% of infants were this.
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Internal Validity MA
Main and Solomon believe that Ainsworth's 3 categories were correct and real. they found children could be type A,B or C.
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Internal Validity MA
strange situation is artificial. mums may have demand characteristics because she knows psychologists are looking at her, she may be worried, infant could pick it up and be anxious. the anxiety may cause child to be classified as something theyre not
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Internal Validity MA
Main and Solomon found some children shown behaviour that was not 1 of these 3 types. in original study some children could be classified incorrectly. fourth type- type D.
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External Validity (population) MA
strange situation was tested on american infants could it be applied to other populations
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External Validity (population) MA
something america could suggest a secure attachment is different in other cultures- eg some cultures teach children to not be afraid of strangers. the child could be classified as insecure when they are not.
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External Validity (population) MA
Van Ijendoorn and Kroonenberg's research- german infants dont cry when pcg leaves- theyre taught independence. chinese children become very distressed if pcg leaves theyre not used to being separated.
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External Validity (egological) MA
the study was carried out in controlled conditions and might not be generalised to other situations
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Internal Reliability MA
studies shown children get rated as different types of attachment in strange situation depending on which caregiver they are with- a child who's secure should be secure regardless who they're with
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Internal Reliabilty MA
Ainsworth would say that you can be one type of attachment with the main attachment figure and have a different type with a lesser attached person
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External Reliability MA
Warner found that children get rated the same in the strange situation time and time again
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External Reliability MA
Main et al found that children who were rated as secure at 18 months were rated secure at 6 yrs old
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External Reliability MA
main et al found children who were rated secure avoidant at 18 months were not all rated the same at 6 yrs old- (however 75%) still were.
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External Reliability MA
research suggests that the strange situation does work over time and children will stay in the same category unless they have experienced a negative life event.
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internal validity...
if a study has internal validity it is accurate ... does it do what the test is supposed to do? does it work? are there demand characteristics?
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external validity (population)...
can the findings be applied to other people? other countries? cultures?
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external validity (egological)
does it have mundane realism? was it in controlled situations? can it explain behaviour if it wasnt in these conditions?
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if a study has external validity it is
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if something is applicable and accurate it is
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internal reliability
if it has this it is consistent. does something act reliably within itself? does every part of study allude to what you are testing?
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external reliability
how reliable is something if it is tested over time? does it work always work or only at certain times in peoples life? if study has this it's stable
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if something is stable and consistent it is
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Other cards in this set

Card 2


A parent who knows what the child wants


What is a sensitive parent?

Card 3


Natural selection, a child had to use social releases in the past to gain a bond so they wouldn't be abandoned


Preview of the back of card 3

Card 4


What things are useful in survival - e.g. attachment to a parent


Preview of the back of card 4

Card 5


Infant uses these when they see faces to gain love... crying, smiling, cooing, finger grip etc


Preview of the back of card 5
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