Psychology AS-Stress module

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The Sympathomedullary Pathway
SHAA- Stressor, Hypothalamus, Autonomic sympathetic system, Adrenal Medulla
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The Pituitary-Adrenal-System
Susan, Hugged, Peter, Awkwardly- Stressor, Hypothalamus, Pituitary gland, Adrenal cortex-Cortisol released.
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Taylor et al 2000
Main behavioral differences between male and female- women have a 'tend or befriend' response to stress. They either nurture and protect from stress, or befriend and seek help about it.
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Kiecolt-Glaser at al
Natural experiment on medical students. Took blood samples during exam season and one month before. NK cell activity gave insight on how well the immune system was working. NK levels were reduced in the second screening. Lonely students lower NK.
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Marucha et Al
Inflicted a 'punch biopsy' in the mouths of students either during holidays or three days before an exam. Wounds given before the exam took 40% longer to heal than ones in summer.
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1. Health affected by many factors- genetics lifestyle ect. 2. Health is generally stable and slow to change-difficult to demonstrate a stressors affect. 3-Needs continuous measurement over time.
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Evans et Al
Antibody sigA against infection. up-regulation (increased efficiency) for short-term stress, but down-regulation for chronic stress.
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Segerstrom and Miller
meta-analysis of 293 studies over 30 years. found short-term stress can boost immune system, long term can supress it. The longer the stress, the more the immune system changes from adaptive to detrimental changes.
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Heart disease in medical professionals. Some high, some low stress. Heart disease greatest in GP's (11.9%of sample) and lowest in dermatologists (3.2%)
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Sheps et al
Landmark study.. Volounteers with reduced blood flow to the heart. 170 men and women public speaking tasks. Blood pressure soared dramaticaly, stress on heart. 44% were dead in 4 years compared to 18% who's heart did not beat eratically.
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Melchior et Al
Survey one year among 1000 people in a range of jobs in NZ. 15% in high stress jobs had deoression or anxiety compared with 8% in low-stress jobs. Women worse affected than men.
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Diathesis-stress model
If someone is to develop a pysichiatric disorder, they are more biologically vulnerable to it. Stress can impact vulnerability.
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Holmes and Rahe
Social readjustment rating scale. Life changes. Marriage as a set 50.
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Rahe et Al
Military ships. 2700 men. questionnaire before duty, and over six moths. Ilness score calculated on severity, type and number. +.118 correlation between illness and life changes.
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Said daily hassles may be more important contributions to stress.
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DeLongis et Al
75 married couples. Studied the relationship between health and life events. No correlation, but did find hassles had a next day correlation such as flu and colds.
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Spurios relationships
third variables? Anxiety
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Bouteyre et Al
Daily hassles and mental health after move from skl to uni. Psych students questionnaires recorded 41% had depression causing positive correlation.
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Nurses- Daily uplifts.
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Accumilation affect-ruffin
daily hassles accumulate and provide more stress than major life events.
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Life changes can make people more vulnerable to daily hassles.
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Kosaba- Hardy
800 business executives.150 high stress. Low illness record. This suggested to him that they were hardy.
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Negative affectivity- Watson and Clark
people more prone to dissatisfaction and dwell more on failure.
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Friedman and Rosenman
3000 middle aged men. examined for CHD and then interviewed. They then did a follow up and found that 214 (15%) of men had died of CHD. Type A causes CHD.
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stress inoculation therapy. Conceptual, Skills aquisition, Application
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BZ's Kahn et Al
relieves anxiety and slows down nervous system. BZ'S enhance GABA and and allow more chloride into the neutron. Kahn et Al-BZ's 200 users and found BZ's significantly better than Placebo's.
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BB'S Lockwood et Al
reduce adrenaline and nor-adrenaline so help the heart beat slowly with less force. fall in blood pressure and the person feels calmer.Lockwood-200 musicians 27& taking BB's. said they felt better about playing and were judged better.
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The Pituitary-Adrenal-System


Susan, Hugged, Peter, Awkwardly- Stressor, Hypothalamus, Pituitary gland, Adrenal cortex-Cortisol released.

Card 3


Taylor et al 2000


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Card 4


Kiecolt-Glaser at al


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Card 5


Marucha et Al


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