Psychology As A Science

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What is meant by Science?
Systematic study of the structure and behaviour of the physical and natural world through observation and experiment, controlled observations, falsifiable, objective, reliable, paradigm. E.g. L&P, easily replicated, quantitative data
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Reductionism Summary
Aim to breakdown complex phenomenon into simpler components, established sciences, behaviourist approach, classical, operant, SLT, cognitive/biological explain behaviour through internal mental processes or biological factors.
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Reductionism Support (Rahe et al)
Allow us to create testable predictions, more scientific, no testing=no truth about human behaviour, variables isolated & measured, Rahe et al, life changes& illness, variable of stressful life events was isolated, operationalised, falsifiable
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Reductionism Contradict (Freud)
Reductionism alone isn't enough to class it as a science, Psychodynamic = unscientific theories, Freud's case studies, no room for falsifiability, may not be appropriate for psychology, human behaviour too complex, reductionist explanations not valid
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Empirical Methods Support
Separates fact from opinion, experiments, cognitive psychology, abundance of examples, Gibson&Walk "Visual Cliff", depth perception innate or learned, L&P "Leading Questions", effects on EWT reliability, applications to real world are broad.
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Empirical Methods Contradict (Yuille&Cutshell)
Increasing numbers of researchers do not use empirical methods due to ecological validity issues, Y&C, distort memories of EW of real life crime, failed, leading questions=no effect, questions whether this method is the best way of testing theories
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Empirical Methods Summary
Modern psychology uses scientific methods mainly, could be classed as a science, beneficial for psychologists but being reductionist and objective may lead to testable theories, losing validity.
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Paradigm Summary (A shared set of assumptions)
A branch of knowledge conducted on objective principles involving systematised observations of experiment with phenomena, definable with subject matter, shared set of assumptions in sciences, psychology=various approaches.
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Paradigm Support (Wudnt&Watson)
Conscious human thought considered as paradigm,Wudnt=scientifically study processes by introspection. Watson=Pavlov developed scientific methods, clear definition of subject matter and clear methodology.
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Paradigm Contradict (Difficult to work together)
Pre-science, should not detract from the use of scientific methods, number of approaches contradicting cause of behaviour, Freud=retrospective, Pavlov=objective, mind&behaviour should not be a pre-science, difficult to work together
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Other cards in this set

Card 2

Front

Aim to breakdown complex phenomenon into simpler components, established sciences, behaviourist approach, classical, operant, SLT, cognitive/biological explain behaviour through internal mental processes or biological factors.

Back

Reductionism Summary

Card 3

Front

Allow us to create testable predictions, more scientific, no testing=no truth about human behaviour, variables isolated & measured, Rahe et al, life changes& illness, variable of stressful life events was isolated, operationalised, falsifiable

Back

Preview of the back of card 3

Card 4

Front

Reductionism alone isn't enough to class it as a science, Psychodynamic = unscientific theories, Freud's case studies, no room for falsifiability, may not be appropriate for psychology, human behaviour too complex, reductionist explanations not valid

Back

Preview of the back of card 4

Card 5

Front

Separates fact from opinion, experiments, cognitive psychology, abundance of examples, Gibson&Walk "Visual Cliff", depth perception innate or learned, L&P "Leading Questions", effects on EWT reliability, applications to real world are broad.

Back

Preview of the back of card 5
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