Psychology AS

Unit 1 

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What are the 2 Assumptions of the cognative approach
1) Behaviour is shaped by the internal processes of the mind 2) The brain is like a computer: Input...Processing...Output.
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Attributes for behavior come from what two sources?
Intetrnal/dispositional - (The Person) And external/situaltional (the situation)
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Describe Covariation model and the three Axis Attributions are based on.
Three Axis: Cionsistancy, Distinctiveness and concencus.if consistancy is high ( behaviour occurs often) then internal attribyutes are used whereas if it is low or all three axis are high then External Attributes are used.
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Describe observer bias.
We have a Fundermental Attribution Error (FAE). this means we judge others behaviour using internal attributes, E.G if someone annoys you, you believe its because they are a bad person not because they are having a bad vday.
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Describe Self - Serving Bias.
we credit ourselves for success and blames others for our failure.
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Describe Cognative Behaviour Therapy (CBT)
Firstly the therapist challenges negative thoughts. next they challenge negative 'self-schema' - becks negative triad ( where clients are pessamistic about the world, themselves and the future) finally the therapist teches relaxation techniques.
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Who suggested that CBT is the most succesful therapy?
David and Avellino (2003) especially if taken with antidepressants - therapy within therapy.
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What are the two assumptions of the Behaviorist approach?
1) Behaviour is learned by association ( Classical Conditioning) 2) Behaviour is learned through reinforcement ( Operant Conditioning)
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Describe SLT
Social learning theory assumes that aggression is learned and reinforced through observation and imitation of a role model. people can be reinforced directly or see a role model being rewarded, reinforced indirectly.
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What makes a role model likely to be imitated?
1) same age 2) same sex 3) high in status 4) likable
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Give an example of SLT in practice
banduras Bobo doll: children watched an adult be aggressive towards a doll by hitting it with bats and their fists. when the adult left the room the children did exactly the same.
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Explain how SD works
Systematic Desensitisation 1) Hierarchy of anxiety. 1 - the furthest theyd currently go in terms of their fear. 10 - their highest fear. 2) relaxation and meditation techniques. 3) Working up through the hierarchy of anxiety.
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who dicovered the success rate of SD and what is it?
McGrath - 75%
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Who was little Albert?
A test subject of Watson who was learned to fear a white through the association of its presence and a loud cymbal crash behind his head.
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What are the two assumptions of the biological approach?
1) there is a close link between the brain and behaviour ( electrical Messages). 2) there is a close link between genes and behaviour.
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Explain stage 1 of Selye's GAS
GAS is all animals response to stress which inclydes three stages. stage 1) Alarm: stressor activates the hypothalamus which triggers the HPA Axis and the ANS. this causes arenaline production for fight or flight. continue to next card for stage 2,3
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Explain stage 2 of Selye's GAS
Stage 2) Resistance: the body continues to make adrenaline and cortisol. the parasympathetic nervous system cuts in and the body appears to cope. Due to high hormone levels the body cant cope well. The body has high blood pressure and stores sugar.
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Explain Stage 3 of Selye's GAS
Stage 3) Exhaustion: High hormone levels mean the body can no longer cope. Damaged Adrenal Glands due to over activity. weakened immune system causes illness such as heart disease and ulcers Selye's Rats died at this stage.
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What does GAS stand for and what is meant when it is described as Universal and General.
General Adaptation Syndrome. Universal - Same for everyone General - Same response no matter what the stressor is.
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Explain how stage 1 and 2 of Chemotherapy work
1) Diagnosis - using the DSM and or ICD Systems. 2) Prescription - a course of drugs will be prescribed based on the diagnosis. some prevent reuptake of brain chemicals some bind receptors and some reduce adrenaline production.
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Explain how stage 3 of Chemotherapy works
3) Side effects an success is discussed. Side effects such as tardive dyskinesia can be caused by some drugs used in Chemotherapy. This is where a patient suffers from involentary spasms. Other side effects include addiction and dependency.
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who suggested the success rate of Chemotherapy and what is it?
Viguara (2000) 60% ( in a cases of lithium, results may vary with differing drugs).
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what are the two assumptions of the Psychodynamic approach?
1) Adult behaviour is affected by the unconscious mind. 2) Adult behaviour is affected by childhood experiences and early relations.
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Explain Freuds theory of personality.
1) id - unconscious - seeks only pleasure - inborn. 2) Ego - conscious - realistic and logical - uses defence mechanisms - 1-2 years. 3) Superego - Unconscious - Conscience and Morals - 4-6 years. personality = Ego balancing the id and superego.
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Explain the 5 Psycho sexual stages Freuds Theory of Personality is based on
Children pass through five stages, passage through them effects their personality. Oral, Anal, Phallic, Latent Genital. If during the Anal stage passage is traumatic = anally retentive = OCD. Or in Oral stage:fed lots = generous, deprived = selfish.
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Explain how Dream Analysis works
Stage 1) manifest and latent content are identified. ( story in dream and its meaning.) 2) a link between the two is drawn. therapist cannot force an interpretation. 3) client see's how the conflicts in the mind relate to current issues 4) catharsis.
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what is the aims, and success rate of Dream analysis?
Dream Analysis aims to turn repressed wishes and fears into conscious and non threatening meanings of dreams. Bergin (1971) suggested its success rate is 83%
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Other cards in this set

Card 2


Attributes for behavior come from what two sources?


Intetrnal/dispositional - (The Person) And external/situaltional (the situation)

Card 3


Describe Covariation model and the three Axis Attributions are based on.


Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4


Describe observer bias.


Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5


Describe Self - Serving Bias.


Preview of the front of card 5
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