Psychology- Abrnomality

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What is the definition of 'deviation from social norms?'
People who break or reject the social norms and behave in a socially deviant way should be regarded as abnormal. For example, sufferers of schizophrenia are sometimes seen shouting and swearing at themselves.
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What are the limitations of the definition of 'deviation from social norms?
1:Context- in some situations the behaviour may be normal. 2:Does not offer a universal definition- different cultures have different social norms. 3: To be socially deviant is not necessarily a bad thing,
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What is the definition of 'failure to function adequately'?
Failure to function means that a person is unable to live a normal life or engage in a normal range of behaviours.People’s behaviour is considered to be abnormal if it causes distress and prevents them from living successfully in their own cultures
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What are the limitations of the defintion of 'failure to function adequately'?
1: Personal distress may be quite normal- for example when grieving for a close relative. 2: Not clear how extreme the behaviour has to be, to be considered abnormal. 3: Cultural relativism- functioning adequately is different in different cultures.
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What is the definition of 'deviation from ideal mental health'?
Ideal mental health has 6 criteria: 1. Positive attitude towards oneself. 2. Potential for growth and development. 3. Autonomy. 4. Resistance to stress. 5. Environmental mastery. 6. Accurate perception of reality
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What are the limitations of the definition 'deviation from ideal mental health'?
1: Most people don't meet all these ideals. 2: It is not clear how many of the criteria need to be lacking to be considered abnormal. 3. Cultural relativism
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Outline the biological approach to abnormality
Chemical imbalances in the brain and body may be involved in certain mental illnesses. For example, it has been found that schizophrenic patients have excessive amounts of the neurotransmitter dopamine in their brains.
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Evaluate the biological approach to abnormality
(-) Although it is very successful in explaining some disorders, it doesn't for all for example phobias. (-) Ignores psychological and cultural factors. (+) More humane than other approaches as it places the blame on the illness not the person
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Outline classical and operant conditioning in the behavioural approach
Classical conditioning: The person learns to associate an object or event with an emotional or unconscious stimulus. Operant conditioning:This assumes that if behaviour is reinforced (rewarded), it is more likely to be repeated
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Outline the social learning theory in the behavioural approach to abnormality
Social Learning Theory: This assumes that abnormal behaviour is learned through observing a role model, such as a friend or parent behaving abnormally, and then imitating their behaviour.
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Evaluation of the Behavioural approach to abnormality
(-) Focuses on observable behaviour rather than looking at the underlying problems. (+) Makes claim for greater scientific validity than other models as it has lots of research to support it
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Outline the cognitive approach to abnormality
Faulty Maladaptive Thinking: Mental disorders stem from unrealistic, distorted, negative or irrational thoughts about oneself, others or the environment, and from difficulties in controlling thought processes.
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Evaluation of the cognitive approach to abnormality
(+) High face validity. (-) Ignores biological factors. (-) Not sure whether the illness causes the maladaptive thinking, or the maladaptive thinking causes the illness
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Outline the psychodynamic approach to abnormality
Abnormal behaviours are the result of traumas from childhood and their repressed memories. 3 parts the Id (selfish part), the superego (the moral conscience), the ego (that controls the Id and the superego).
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Evaluation of the Psychodynamic approach to abnormality
(-) It rejects the biological view that abnormality is distinct from normality. (-) Concepts such as the id, ego and super-ego cannot be directly observed and there is no scientific validation of the theory
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Outline Drug Therapy as a biological treatment for abnormality
Drug Therapy works in three different ways : Anti- Anxiety Drugs - benzodiazepines work by increasing the neurotransmitter GABA. Anti-depressant drugs- breaks down the serotonin. Anti-psychotic drugs- reduces the level of dopamine.
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Evaluate Drug Therapy as a biological treatment for abnormality
(+) Research has shown that drug therapy is effective and fast working. (-) Drugs do not address the underlying problems. (-) Many of the drugs have bad side effects
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Outline Electroconvulsive therapy as a biological treatment for abnormality
ECT is mostly used for those suffering from severe depression where other treatments have not been successful. The person is strapped to a bed and two electrodes are attached to the head and a small electric current is sent through the brain
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Evaluate Electroconvulsive therapy as a treatment for abnormality
(-) Bad side effects such as short term memory loss which makes it a last resort. (+) Effective - research shows 60-70% improvement after ECT. (+) Quick- it is not a long term process- may only need one treatment
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Outline psychoanalysis as a psychological treatment for abnormality
Made up of two techniques: 1. Free-Association: The client is encouraged to speak what ever comes into their mind without self censorship, no matter how strange.2. Dream Analysis:Dreams reveal unconscious impulses and repressed memories
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Evaluate Psychoanalysis as a psychological treatment for abnormality
(+) Freud developed psychoanalysis over many years of experience treating clients. (-) Only suitable for those who are not experiencing severe psychotic symptoms. (-) Time consuming- can take months or even years
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Outline systematic de-sensitisation as a psychological treatment for abnormality
In step one the client learns deep relaxation techniques. In step two the client and the therapist create an anxiety hierarchy of the feared stimulus. In step three the client, starts with the lowest level of anxiety on the hierarchy.
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Evaluate systematic de-sensitisation as a psychological treatment for abnormality
(+) Effective 75% of people with Phobias responded well to SD. (-) It ignores any deeper underlying psychological issues. (-) Treatment process takes place over a long period of time
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Outline cognitive behavioural therapy as a psychological treatment for abnormality
CBT- based on the cognitive approach and is often used to treat depression and addiction. It seeks to identify distorted negative thought patterns within the client, challenge these patterns and replace them with more positive realistic ones
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Evaluate cognitive behavioural therapy as a psychological treatment for abnormality
(+) Effective- in a meta-analysis shown to have the 2nd highest success rate out of 10 therapies. (+) Attempts to deal with the cause of the problem. (-) Not appropriate for all mental disorders.
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What are the limitations of the definition of 'deviation from social norms?

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1:Context- in some situations the behaviour may be normal. 2:Does not offer a universal definition- different cultures have different social norms. 3: To be socially deviant is not necessarily a bad thing,

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What is the definition of 'failure to function adequately'?

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What are the limitations of the defintion of 'failure to function adequately'?

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What is the definition of 'deviation from ideal mental health'?

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