PSYCHOLOGY

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  • Created by: fay bower
  • Created on: 06-03-14 18:20
loftus and palmer experiment one aim
to see if estimates given by participants about the speed of vehicles in a traffic collision would be influenced by the wording of the question asked.
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loftus and palmer experiment one method
45 students. all shown 7 film clips of different accidents. after each clip the participants were given a questionnaire asking them to describe the accident and 'about how fast were the cars going when they', hit.bumped.smashed.collided.contacted.
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loftus and palmer experiment one results
mean speed estimate was calculated. smashed 40.8, collided 39.3, bumped 38.1, hit 34.0, contacted 31.8. Smashed estimated a higher speed than contacted.
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loftus and palmer experiment one discussion
response bias factors: the critical word influences or bias' a persons response. Memory representation is altered: the critical word changes a persons memory so the persons perception of the accident is altered.
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lotftus and palmer experiment two aim
to investigate the effects of leading questions on memory. To see if such questions simply create a response bias or whether they alter a persons memory representation.
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loftus and palmer experiment two method part one
150 students. part one: shown a 1 minute film which contained a 4 second multiple car accident. asked a set of Q's including critical question about speed. group one: 'smashed'. group two: 'hit'. group three: no Q about speed - control.
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loftus and palmer experiment two method part two
week later participants returned to lab, asked 'did you see any broken glass?' there was no broken glass in the film, but presumably those who though the car was travelling faster would assume there's broken glass.
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loftus and palmer experiment two results part one
participants gave a higher speed estimate in the 'smashed' condition 10.46 compared to 'hit' with 8.00mph
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loftus and palmer experiment two results part two
'smashed' condition were more likely to have seen broken glass.
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loftus and palmer experiment two discussion
the way a question is asked can influence the answer given. this effect is not just because of a memory bias but because leading questions actually alter the reconstructive memory.
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loftus and palmer evaluation
lab - low ecological validity, high control. American students - culture bias,age bias. Quantitative - scientific, valid, objective. Representative - video clips not like real life. Applications - police change their questioning.
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baron cohen aim
do high functioning adults with autism have a lack of theory of mind
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baron cohen theory of mind tests
sally anne - age 6. Happe strange stories - age 8/9
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baron cohen method - participants
group 1: autism/as 13 males 3 females, advert in autism mag, normal intelligence. group 2: normal adults 25 male 25 female aged matched, normal intelligence. group 3: tourettes 8 males 2 females aged matched, normal intelligence (as/ts developmental)
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baron cohen procedure (eyes task, strange stories)
1: eyes task, eye region 25 photos male & female same size from mag's, all b&w. shown for 3 secs, P's given forced choice Q two mental state terms one basic one complex both opposite states. 2: strange stories, group 1&3 to test validity of eyes task
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baron cohen procedure (control tasks)
gender recognition of photos to involve face perception. Basic emotions task, P's asked to judge 6 whole face photos of basic emotions (happy,sad,angry,afraid,disgust,surprise).
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baron cohen results (eyes task)
eyes task: austism/as mean 16.3. normal mean 20.3. ts mean 20.4. normal and ts preformed identically AS alot less able to cope with eyes task. ceiling effect for normal/ts group (full marks). females did better in normal group.
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baron cohen results (other tasks)
strange stories task - TS no mistakes, AS severely impaired. on control tasks group 1 preformed normally.
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baron cohen discussion
1: adults with autism/AS impaired on ToM test despite normal intelligence. 2: normal population females do better than males on ToM test. Autism impairment not down to low intelligence, developmental factor of condition, not due to weak coherence.
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baron cohen conclusion
provides evidence for lack of ToM in adults with autism/AS
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baron cohen evaluation
Ecological validity - task for ToM is more basic than a real life situation. controls - good control of variables. Procedure was standardized. Validity - is it measuring ToM
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savage rumbaugh aim
to study human language capabilities in pygmy chimpanzee's
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savage rumbaugh method - subjects
principal subject Kanzi, pygmy chimp aged 30months during report. rare in captivity and wild. Kanzi's sister Mulika aged 11months. Both spent several hours per day with their mother. Common chimps austin&sherman, part of earlier programmes.
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savage rumbaugh procedure
K&M visual symbol system (lexigrams) on electric keyboard or pointing board. speech synthesiser added when kanzi could comprehend words. so words would speak as symbol touched.
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loftus and palmer experiment one method

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45 students. all shown 7 film clips of different accidents. after each clip the participants were given a questionnaire asking them to describe the accident and 'about how fast were the cars going when they', hit.bumped.smashed.collided.contacted.

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loftus and palmer experiment one results

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loftus and palmer experiment one discussion

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lotftus and palmer experiment two aim

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