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what is unipolar and Bipolar depression?
Unipolar is when a person experiences extremely depressed or sad mood state that may last for weeks or months if left untreated. Bipolar is when a person had huge mood swings, one minute they are in an emotional stage followed by periods of mania
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A little bit about unipolar depression.
people suffer emotionally- being sad, loss of pleasure in life, cognitive- poor concentration, poor memory. physiological-sleep disturbances,headaches, lack of sleep. behavioural -with draw from social activities and poor hygiene.
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how do you diagnosis unipolar?
The DSM states that a clinical diagnosis of depression requires at least 5 of the symptoms for at least two weeks. normally people with unipolar are dignoised with another psychological problem for example an eating disorder.
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statistics for unipolar depression.
1/6 people will experience a feeling of deppression but it usually doesnt last long enough for them to undergo a dignosistic test such as the DSM. it has found that unipolar is more common in childhood and adolences.
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Bipolar depression.
with Bipolar periods of major depression with periods of mania.
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a little bit about bipolar depression?
a person goes through emotionally being irritated, frustration and lack of guilt. cognitively- delusional ideas, feeling that people are out to get them, and making irrational decisions. behaviourally and physiologically- high energy.
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follow on..
increased working ability, and very talkative, if a person has 5 symptoms of the above and has had tehm for over a week then they can go under a diognosis. after the manic stage a perosn will feel very tired and sleep for a long time.
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statistics about bipolar.
between 1% and 2% of adults suffer from bipolar, it has the same occurance for men and women. the average age to get it sits between 15 and 40 years, after the age of 40 bipolar is very rare. and when it does it is very serious and lasts for ages.
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genetic explanation for mood disorders.
family history and twin studies suggest that mood disorders especially bipolar have a genetic basis. some twin studies have found that concorance rates are higher in women than men.
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genetic explaination evaulation
so far there has not been a single gene pinpointed to be responsible for mood disorders, but there has been eveidence that a seritonin trasnmitter gene could play a key role. the present view is that mood disorders is caused by a mutli genes not one.
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serotonin and norepnephrine have been indenitfied as being invloved in both unipolar and bipolar, both effect energy levels. both are found in high levels in he limbic system which controls sleep, appetite and emotions.
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an inbalance in either of these (higher) can lead to mania and (lower) can lead to depression.
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in the manic stage serotin is very low and norephnephrine is high, in comparison to depresson when both levels are low.
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Endocrine system.
made up of a number of glad, know as the hypothamus and the pitutiary gland, when a person is stressed the body sercretes a hormone know as cortisol which helps deal with a stressful situation such as flight or fight, eg a fight.
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endocrine system.
a suffer of mania tends to have very high levels of cortisol meaning they deal with a stressful situation by becoming depressed, where as a suffer of depression have a maintained high level meaning that the event will make them depressed for long per
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brain abnormalities.
brain scans PET have identify 4 four areas of the brain to have abnormalities. prefrontal cortex,hippocapus, anterior cingulated cortex, amygdala.
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behavioural explanations for depression.
generally the behaviourist explanation for depression is based around the idea that people gain rewards foe behaving negatively, research has shown that people perfer to seek friends and partners who view them in negative way.
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model of depression.
person suffers loss-reduction is postive reinforcement-withdraw in social life-depression-attention and sympathy from others is reinforeced- depression maintained to keep reinforcements from others.
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evaluation of biological explanation for mood disorders.
In twin studies the concordance is not 100% meaning the enviroment must also have a role. no single gene has been found only multiple genes. higher concordance in DZ twins would be assumed by environmentalist that they must have had more of shared en
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evaluation of biological explanation of mood disorders.
brain abnormalities have found to be a consequence rather than a cause
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evaluation of behavioural
most of the eviedence has been used on animals and therefore these findings cant be generalised to humans, the behavioural theory is based on classical and operational conditioning which you need to have an understanding of cognitive processes
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evaulation for behavioural
therefore its not pure behavioural explanation
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cognitive explaination for depression.
cognitive explaination would state that people have depression because of the way they think which is negatively, beck suggested that we are born with negative schemas which provide a cognitive framework for viewing events these schemas develop
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cognitive explanation for depression.
Into adulthood resulting in a distinctive way of thinking including, overgenralisation- believing that one ngetiave event means everything is negative, magnification- blowing things out of proportion. selective perception- concetrating on only bad ev
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cognitive explaination for depression.
events ignoring good. absolutist thinking- believing everything must be perfect or else its bad.
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investigated schemas, he made a DAS scale to a group of peple dignosised with depression and a group without, the DAS consisted of a number of statements which the perso is asked to agree or disagree,e.gif i make a mistake will people thinkless of me
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results for beck study.
people with depression scored higher indicating that they thought more negatively. conclusion people with depression think more negatively and use there negative schemas more.
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cognitive triad becks
self- not good enought to go to uni world- schools horrible future- nothing good will ever happen to me.
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learned helplessness.
this states that uncontrollable negative events in a persons life can lead to depression, this leads to them feeling helpless, this can mean you can not control rewards and thinking you are responasbile for everything.
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internal attribution- its your own fault stable attribution- the way i am and will always be. global attribution- thats how iam with everyone and all my life events.
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evaulation for cognitive.
cognitive explanations of depression are based on experimental research using people rather than animals. The cognitive approach has been less helpful at explaining bipolar depression, cognitive approach has resulted in effective cognitive therapies.
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psychodymanic explanation for depression
frued stated that it was down to greif and loss and dependency, and how the child deals with this loss as child sets out how an adult will react in the situation later on in life. greif at an early age can leave a child feeling rejected..
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psychodymanic explanation.
meaning that the child cannot express angry outwards so push it inwards leading to self blame. this is known as introjection of hostility, meaning that a person is likely to regress to an early childhood stafe of psychosexual deveopment called the or
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psychodynamic explaination
has lead to development of interpersonal theories of depression.
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evaulation of psychodynamic
lead to interpersonal theory of depression which resulted in effective treatment.
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drug therapy
tricyclic- these drugs prevent sertonin being taken back into the neurotransmitter after it has been realised. monoamine oxidase inhibitors work to by stopping the break down of monoamine activity meaning the neurotrasmitters are of higher level
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drug therapy.
in the brain. selective serontonin reuptake inhibitors these allow serontonin to remain active for longer in the synapse.
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drug therapy evaluation.
all drugs have side effects, the three classes of drugs all help reduce depression but have undeseriable side effects and not everybody responses to drug treatments. they take a long time to work, someone with bad depression may find it difficult
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evaluation of drug treatment
to wait for the drug to kick in, and may feel like they are not being helped. these drugs are used for unipolar depression but do not work for bipolar.
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ect for depression
it induces a brain seizure by passing electcity through the brain. the person is then anaesrgetused and then given a muscle relaxant, electrodes are placed on head and shock is given, seizure lasts for about 1 min.
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ect for depression
it is used as a last resort when a person does not respond to drugs.
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cognitive treatments for mood disorders.
help by removing negative thoughts, and help people solve problems in a positive way. its a breif tretment e.g someone can have it for 3 months and there thougt process can be improved.
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rational-emotive therapy
taking away irrational thoughts, they challenge the persons thoughts for example a person may think i must be perfect at evrything a psychlogist would turn that around and say you dont at everything!
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becks cognitive therapy
its aimed at challaging the cognitive traid, 1- increasing cofidence. 2 challanging negative thoughts 3- identifiying negative thoughts 4- chnaging attuitudes and beliefes. this theory envloves the patient being the scientist they are the ones doing
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evaulation of cognitive therapy.
shown to be highly effective treatment for depression recovery rate is 60-70%. it can be used in one to one or in a group but is very cost effective. using both drug and cog has shown to be the most effective treatment and is commonly used.
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it is also successful at preventing mild depression from developing into servere. cog is not useful for people in the manic phase of depression
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psychodymanic therapy
this invloves commitment as you have to attend sessions 3 times a week, the person needs insight into their condition, and is not effective in bipolar despression, they anaylsis childhood memories.
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evaluation of treatment for mood disorders.
clinical depression respones well to drug treatments with many people not relapsing. there is ethical issues when using the placebo group because epople are decived and lead to believe they are getting treated when in fact they are not.
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evaulation for treatment of mood disorders.
they are effective and have helped inprove the quailty of life but have undeseriable sideffects making patients not want to take them and then when stoppng taking them there depression can become more serious.
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Card 2


A little bit about unipolar depression.


people suffer emotionally- being sad, loss of pleasure in life, cognitive- poor concentration, poor memory. physiological-sleep disturbances,headaches, lack of sleep. behavioural -with draw from social activities and poor hygiene.

Card 3


how do you diagnosis unipolar?


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Card 4


statistics for unipolar depression.


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Card 5


Bipolar depression.


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