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biological explanation for schizophrenia
suggests that mental disorders have a physical cause e.g genetics of neurochemical. schiz tends to run in families and studies have shown that the closer the genetics the higher the concordance rate is e.g fam member has it increased you will.
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Twin studies
MZ twins have 100% of genes where as DZ only 50% therefore if genetics do play a role then MZ concordance should be higher than DZ, this is show by the gottesman and shield with mz 45, dz 14
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adoption studies
separate genes from the environment, children adopted have no genes in common with adopted parents so therefore genes and environment are separate,47 mothers with **** whos children were adopted found that 16% of **** in children
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evaluation of genetic explanation
46% concordance rate found for MZ twins suggests a major contribution to genotype findings from adoption studies suggest that inheritance does play a part in the **** and that there may be a genetic predisposition to the disorder
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what are the main symptoms of schizophrenia
hallucinations, dellusions, thought disorder, emotional blunting.
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what are the secondary impairments
social-unemployment, rejection, soical drift. psychological-poor coping, loss of confidence, no motivation.
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what is meant by a positive symptom of schizophrenia
Those that are additional to normal behaviour such as hallcinations or delusions.
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what is used to diagnose schizophrenia and how is it diagnosed?
DSM-IV, psychologists need to distinguis the symptoms from other psychotic disorders and then determine the type of schiz. the DSM requires symptoms that have been present at least 1 myth and others for 6 months before a diagnosis can be made.
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what are the specific diagnostic criteria set out by the DSM-IVR
Characteristic symptoms, social occupational dysfunction, duration
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what is involved in characteristic symptoms?
two or more of the following each present for 1 month, delusions, hallucinations, disorganised speech, negative symptoms.
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what is involved in social occupational dysfunction
for a significant proportion of time since the onset of the disturbance once or more major areas of functioning such as work, interpersonal relations or self care are majorly low.
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what is involved in duration
continuous signs for at least 6 months.
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what are the types of schizophrenia which appear in the DSM?
paranoid, catatontic, disorganised, undifferentiated.
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what is type 1 and type 2 schizophrenia?
type 1- positive symptoms and responsive to drug treatments. type 2 - negative symptoms and less responsive to drugs.
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evaluation of classification of schizophrenia?
schizophreina is complicated condition making it difficult to diagnose. there is argued that there is a third set of symptoms which are unrealted to positive and negative known as disorganised ****.
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investigation for neurotransmitters has been carried out in three ways:
looking for evidence of metabolites in urine/blood. through post-mortem tissue. through neuroimaging techniques e.g PET scans.
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what is the dopamine hypothesis?
excessive dopamingeric activty in the brain was thought to cause schiz symptoms.
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where did they get eveidence for the dopamine hypothesis?
1. when taken by healthy individuals drugs that increase dopamine activity result in psychotic symptoms. 2. such drugs make psychotic symptoms worse. 3. drugs that block dopamine receptor neurones help to reduce symptoms.
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It was found that it heightened sensitivity of the receptors for dopamine in the brain that lead to the **** symptoms, evidence for this comes from?
post mortem studies showing there are more D2 receptors in the brains of people with **** than of normal ppl, PET scans reported increase in D2 patines with ****.
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evaluation of neurochemical explanation
use of post mortens, not clear weather increase in D2 is a cause of payjology or drugs taken.
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what are the sociocultural explaintions of schizophrenia?
labelling, family dysfunction.
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how can labelling cause shizophrenia?
scheff- an indivdual who breaks residual rules is assigned a label mentally ill. this label influences the person to act in a certain way to fit in with there label and find it hard to fit back in to normal society, this is self fulfilling prophecy.
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outline rosenhans study
group of people pretended they could hear a voice which said empty, hollow and thud. they were sent to hospital with ****. patients behaved normal once admitted their behaviour was interpeted by staff as schizophrenic.
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what are the results of roseenhans study
The patients had difficulty convincing staff they were sane and were hospitalised between 7-52 days. normal behaviour was seen as abnormal, once labelled with **** the label **** and were discharged with **** in remission.
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evaluation of labelling theory
rosenhans study helped improv reliability of diagnosis. the theory only accounts for how symptoms are maintained not explain the cause or offer treatment. it ignores genetic evidence.
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what did bateson et al suggest about family dysfunction?
communication between parent and child was sometimes contradictory- double bind, parent might be saying one thing but there body language is saying another, children who experience this learn not to trust own feelings as shown in people with ****.
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according to family dysfunction there are two types of abnormal family structures.
schismatic- conflicts between parents results in competition for effection of family members and desire to take control over other parent. skewed- one parent dominates child encouraged to follow dominant one imparing cognitive/socail development.
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evaluation of early studies of family dysfunction?
Not possible to explain cause ad effect. may be parents reaction to difficult child that cause problems,
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expressed emotion explanation
brown et al. people with **** were discharged from hospital and returned to parents fared worse then those who returned to lodgings. high face to face contact was found to increase risk of relapse, this is due to prents emotional over involvement.
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emotional over involvement includes
emotion positive and negative, critical comments and tone of voice.
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study into high expressed emotion.
data was analysed to determine the proportion of EE familes and the average elapse rate for people with ****. returning to high EE families
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what were the results?
52 % of fams were high EE 50 were low EE.
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evaulation of the expressed emotion explanation?
high EE patterns are not specific to ****, also found in familes with depression EE is measured via 1:1 interiew which might not be accurate picture of family interaction patterns.
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outline chadwicks study of nigel claimed to have the speical power
claimed to have the speical power of knowing what people were going to say, to test belief video reorders were out on pause and nigel was asked to say what was coming next out of 50 he got non right concluding that he did not have the power at all.
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evaulation of cognitive therapy
leads to fasters reponse to treatment in group patients with **** compard to drugs alone. trails of cog therapy for delusions have shown 40% reduction in severity of psychotic symptoms.
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what is psychotherapy?
generic term which covers psych dynamic+ cog therapies, non biological talking therapies, not always effective in individuals with sever **** symptoms.
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cognitive therapy usually includes the following components?
therapist questions clients delusion and puts forward more reasonable once, by challenging evidence a reduction in conviction can occur.client becomes aware of linke between events, belief affect and behaviour.
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what drugs are used to treat schizophrenia?
Atypical e.g rispiredone proved to work on patients who did not respond to older nuroleptics. newer drugs dont have side affects. + chloroplazmine.
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evaluation of drug treatment
side effects can be destressing, clozpine can lower fatal white blood cell count. rispiredone= + no evidence these drugs are effective for negative symptoms.
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Twin studies


MZ twins have 100% of genes where as DZ only 50% therefore if genetics do play a role then MZ concordance should be higher than DZ, this is show by the gottesman and shield with mz 45, dz 14

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adoption studies


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evaluation of genetic explanation


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what are the main symptoms of schizophrenia


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