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What are the four different types of abnormal Psychology?
Statistical Infrequency - Deviatiom Social Norms - Failure to Function adequately- Deviation from ideal mental health
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What is the definition of 'Statistical Infrequency'
Deviation from the norm or average population- Doesn't account for acceptability or type of behaviour. -Eg. Very high intelligence is abnormal as it is so rare.
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What is the definition for 'Deviation from social norm's'?
Going against society's accepted codes of behaviour - how were expected to behave. > Social norms ary from one society to another. Eg. It used to be abnormal to be an unmarried mother than now.
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What dose it mean by the term 'Attachment' ?
It is when there's a strong and close emotional bond between two people. Eg. Infant and caregiver.
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What are the four phases of attachment?
* Pre-attachment phase (0-3 months) * Indiscriminate attachment phase (3-7 months) * Discriminate attachment phase (7-9 momths) *Multi attachment (9+Months)
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What is the Pre-attachment Phase?
The infant begins to treat other humans differently than objects by smiling and gurgle.
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What is the indiscriminate attachment phase?
The infant can identify between familiar and unfamiliar people but is happy to be comforted by anyone.
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What is the discriminate attachment phase?
The infant identifies who is a care and a stranger. They sjow distress and seperation anxiety when left alone and may be fearful of strangers.
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What is the multi attachment phase?
They develop other attachments with more people ( brothers, sisters, grandparents) however the original attachment is the strongest.
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Who producted an experiment on the security between an infant and the caregiver?
Mary Ainsworth- Strange Situation 》 Observing the variety of attachmemt forms exhibited between mothers and infants aged 1 to 2 year olds.
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What are the three different attachment forms?
A: Insecure Avoidant - Very independent, no distress / B: Secure Attachment- use as a safe base, explore, comforted / C: Insecure Resistant- Clingy dependant behaviour, dont explore + difficult to soothe.
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What is the effect of deprivation and privation?
Attachment csn be damaged if the relationship between the caregiver and infant is broken.
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What is 'Deprivation' and ' Privation'?
Deprkvation- the LOSS of an emotional bond- (Matenal deprivation- Seperation or loss of mother) / Privation- Child fails to develop an emotional bond.
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Who conducted experiments about deprivation and privatkon?
○Hodges + Tizard (Privation) ○Harlow's research with monkeys ○Bowlby- 44 Thieves
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What are the effects of seperation?
Very similar to short term deprivation. They found that the distress felt by children fell into 3 categories called the - Protest- Despair-Detachment (PDD)
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What is the PDD Model?
Protest: Crying, panic, cling to parent. / Despair: Loss of hope, show little interest to surroundings, self comforting, withdrawn + no interest. / Detachment: Child calms down, doesn't respond to caregiver and seem less distressed.
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What are the effects of privation? ( who do you investigate for evidence?)
○ Czech Twins- Locked & abused in a cellar for 6 years between the age 2- 6 years. At 9 adopted at 14 normal behaviour. ○ Genie- Locked in a room for most of her early life with no outside contact . At 13 physical problems, poor social skills
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What effect dose day care have on social development?
Positive! Children gain greater independence and become more used to dealing with different social interactions, however this is only the case if they are sent to a good quality day care with a stimulating and well organised experience.
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What are the negative effects of daycare on social development?
It increases the child's aggression, negative mood, problem behaviours and conflict when spending more hours in daycare during their early years ( before the age of 1 & continued) . Effects the security type the child has withthe caregiver.
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What is 'Abnormal Behaviour'?
Behaviour that deviates from social norms.
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What are the 5 key features of behaviourism?
○Clasical & Operant conditioning ○ Reinforcement + Punishment ○ Objective measurement ○ Social learning theory ○ Reductionism
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Who did research into social behaviours and what experiment did they do to go back up their theory?
Bandura: Bobo Doll Experiment 》 Tested 72 boys + girls from stanford uni aged between 3 to 6 years old. The children were divided into three groups of 24 and were shown 3 different videos ( Aggressive and Non Aggressive Role Model + Control Group)
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Who did a case study into classical conditioning and what this experiment entails of?
Pavlov - Dog - He Looked into the salvation of dogs towards food ( Stimulus and Response).
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What is 'Adaptive Behaviour'?
Behaviour which promotes survival and reproduction.
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What is an Agentic State?
When a person is under the control of an authority figure.
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What is Alturism?
This is a type of helping behaviour, where people put others befofe themselves.
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What is the definition of the word 'attachment' ?
The strong, emotional bond between a chikd and their caregiver.
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What is Behaviourism?
An approach to psychology that believes that all behaviour can be explained by the learning theory.
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What is the bystander behaviour/ effect?
It occurs when the pesence of other people hinders an individual form intervening in an emergancy situations. The other people reduce the victim's chances of recieving help.
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What is a case study?
A research method that involves looking in detail at a single person, eventnor organisation.
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What is 'Deindividuation'?
When loss of personal indentity occurs. Eg. When a person is part of a crowd (Riots)
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What is 'Determinism'?
The belief that all human actions are determined by causes that are outside of our control.
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What is 'Cognitive interview'?
A memory improving method that is used to assist the police in interviewing witnesses. It helps witnesses to recall more detail with more accuracy through it'sit's four steps.
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What are the four steps to congnitive interview?
○ Report Everything ○ Change Perspective ○ Reverse Order ○ Reinstate Context
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Who constructed the cognitive interview? And How ?
Geiseiman etal 》 Used information from loftus' research into EWT and researched the roles that cues can play in memory recall.
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What are the two main approaches to attachment?
Learning and Evolutionary theory.
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What is the learning theory and who investigated it?
》 Dollard & Miller : Learning theory is attachment that is set through learnt behaviours through classical and operant conditioning.
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What is the evolutionary theory and who investigated it?
》 Bowlby : Attachment that is biologically programmed into children at birth. Infants formattachments to whoever responds to them. Safe base + template for future relationships.
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What are adults more encline to comfort a baby if it is crying?
Evolutionary Theory 》 Infants release social releasers : Which adults are biologically attuned which stimulates caregiving from adults. * Physical appearance, crying, smiling etc.
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Card 2

Front

What is the definition of 'Statistical Infrequency'

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Deviation from the norm or average population- Doesn't account for acceptability or type of behaviour. -Eg. Very high intelligence is abnormal as it is so rare.

Card 3

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What is the definition for 'Deviation from social norm's'?

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Card 4

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What dose it mean by the term 'Attachment' ?

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Card 5

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What are the four phases of attachment?

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