Psychology - Griffiths

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Griffiths belongs to which approach?
Individual Differences
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What are the two heuristics looked at in this study?
Flexible attributions and Availability Bias
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1. What is flexible attributions?
1. Accept responsibility for success but place blame elsewhere if they fail
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1. What is Availability Bias?
1. Where Gamblers believe that winning is more likely to happen if they are seeing other gamblers win frequently.
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What is the aim of Griffiths?
To compare the cognitive processes and behaviour of regular and non-regular fruit machine gamblers.
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What were two of the hypothesis for Griffiths?
1. There would be no differences between RG's and NRG's on their objective measures of skill. 2. RG's would produce more irrational verbalisations than NRG's when thinking outloud.
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Give three features of the sample:
60 participants. 30 RG and 30 NRG. 29 males and 1 female in RG. 15 male and 15 female in NRG. From the Exeter area of Devon.
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What was the sampling method and why?
They were a volunteer sample as they were recruited through a gambler Griffiths knew and a poster advertised around Exeter University and local college campuses.
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What was the Research Method?
Quasi Experiment. It was conducted in a natural setting of an amusement Arcade.
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What was the IV and DV?
IV = RG or NRG. DV = There was two types. Objective DVs = which was the list of behavioural outcomes and Subjective DV's = Data collected from thinking aloud and Perception of Skill from Self-reports/Interviews
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What is the basic procedure?
All participants would be given £3 to gamble on a machine called Fruitskill. They were asked to try for at least 60 times, which would require winning a further £3. They were then randomly split into 2 groups of thinking aloud and not thinking aloud.
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What were the four instructions given in the thinking aloud condition?
1. Say everything that goes through your mind. 2 Keep talking as continuously as possible, even if thoughts aren't clearly structured. 3. Dont hesitate to use fragmented sentences. 4. Dont justify your thoughts.
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What were the three areas of results?
1. Objective measures of Skill. 2. Irrational verbalisations. 3. Subjective measures of Skill.
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What were two results of the Objective measures of Skill?
1. RG's gambled more than NRG per minute at 8:6. RG's who thought aloud had a lower win rate than all other groups.
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What were two results of the Irrational Verbalisations?
1. 7.54% of what RG's said was personification of the machine, compared to 1.14% of what the NRG's said. 2. RG's produced more irrational verbalisations overall at 14% compared to NRG at 2.5%.
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What were two results of the Subjective measures of Skill?
1. RG's said that gambling required equal levels of skill and chance, where as NRG's said it was mostly chance. 2. RG's rated themselves as above average in terms of skill, where NRG's rated themselves below average.
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What were 2 conclusions of Griffiths?
1. There were very few actual differences in performance on the Fruitskill machine in RG and NRG. 2. RG think they are better than NRG's and engaged in more irrational thinking while gambling.
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What is an Ethical Issue with Griffiths?
The encouragement of gambling could be seen as harmful behaviour.
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What is a strength/weakness of the ecological validity?
1. Strength = Real arcade, aloud to keep winnings. 2. Weakness = Speaking into a microphone while gambling with somebody else's money isn't true to real life.
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Other cards in this set

Card 2

Front

Flexible attributions and Availability Bias

Back

What are the two heuristics looked at in this study?

Card 3

Front

1. Accept responsibility for success but place blame elsewhere if they fail

Back

Preview of the back of card 3

Card 4

Front

1. Where Gamblers believe that winning is more likely to happen if they are seeing other gamblers win frequently.

Back

Preview of the back of card 4

Card 5

Front

To compare the cognitive processes and behaviour of regular and non-regular fruit machine gamblers.

Back

Preview of the back of card 5
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