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  • Created by: miarosexo
  • Created on: 12-05-14 13:57
What is Practice effect?
having done one of the tasks, the participant does the next one better due to practice
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what is Fatigue effect?
having done one of the tasks the participant does the next one worse because of being tired
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what is counter balancing?
alternating the order of the tasks being presented, to counteract order effects. eg first participant does task a then b but next participant does task b then a. ordfer effects should cancel eachother out
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what are the two theorys of memory?
LOP model of memory (craik and lockhart, 1972), Multi store model of memory (Atkinson and shiffrin 1971)
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What are the two types of rehersal that LOP suggests?
Maintenance rehearsal and Elaborative rehearsal
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What is maintenance rehearsal?
we rehearse information in order to retain it for a short time. unlikely to result in strong memory
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what is elaborative rehearsal?
deeper consideration of information by giving it meaning, more likely a durable memory being made
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what is the order or processing?
structural, phonetic, semantic
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according to this framework, where does memory come from?
depth of processing
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what did craik and lockhart 1972 propose?
that we have a central processor that handles sll kinds of perceptual info. if the info is processed on a deep level it is more likely to be retained in the memory system.
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who conducted an experiment relating to this?
Craik and tulving (1975)
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what are some strengths of this theory? craik and lockhart 1972
wide applications, have been used to enhance learning and revision and language learning, accounts for diversity of memory. explains of difference in memory by reffering to depth
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what are some dissadvantages of this theory? craik and lockhart 1972
many variables determine a durable memory, it is therefore difficult to establish what results in depth, morris et al found more words were phonetically processed than semantically processed, which goes against the model. only explains explicit
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What does Atkinson and shiffrin 1971's multi store model of memory describe
memory consists of 3 different stores, sensory, short term memory and ltm
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what is the sensory memory store?
a buffer for all the information in the environment which bombards out perceptual system. holds sensory information for the breifest period until we decide to give it attention and transfer to the short term memory
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what is the short term memory?
limited store for attended information. believed to hold around 7 bits of info for 18-40 secs. rehersal is used to store information for longer and makes it more likely for the info to be transfered to long term
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what is the long term memory?
has a potenitally infinite capacity and can hold info for a few minutes or years
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What are the two theorys of forgetting?
Cue dependent forgetting and forgetting through interference
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Whos theory is cue dependent forgetting?
Tulving 1975
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What does cue dependent theory of forgetting suggest?
the absence of cues leads to forgetting
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what does tulvings cue dependent theory of forgetting explain?
the failure to remember as you cant access the information without the correct cue
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what happens when we encode a new memory?
we also encode information surrounding it. like how we felt and the place qw qwew in. if we cant remember it may be because we arent in a similar situation to the initial encodinh
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what is tulvings encoding specificity principle?
"the greater the similarity between the encoding event and the retrieval event the greater the chances of recalling the original memory"
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what is the tip of the tongue phenomenon? (brown and mcneill)
knowing a memory exists but being temporarily unable to recall it. participants were given dictionary definitions of unfamiliar words and asked to recal them
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what is context dependent forgetting?
If we are not in the same situation as when learning. we may not be able to access the memory easily. this is why revisiting old places can trigger memorys of being there
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how does godden and baddeleys(1975) study reinforce this theory?
demonstrated how divers recalled 50%less words when they were asked to recall them in an environment different to where they learnt them. without the conditions for the learning and recall being the same the divers forgot the words. (no context cue)
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what did schab find?
chocolate can be a strong cue to aid recall
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what is state dependent forgetting?
when we learn information, we encode details about our emotional and physical state. if we wish to recall the memory state cues may not be present making it difficult to remember
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what did lang et al find?
when fear was induced for learning and recal the students were more likely to recall more words than when they learned in fear and recalled in a relaxed state
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what anecdotal evidence is there for cue dependent forgetting?
lots. we have all experienced knowing something and not able to recal it. or memories coming back when you see an old friend. real life accounts hard to study- and experiments can be seen as unrealistic
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why are the applications of the theory limited?
the artificial settings of the studys may not reflect real life forgetting
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what is displacement?
new information replaces information which is temporarily stored in the stm, hich olny has a limited amount of storage space. as new info enters. items can be pushed out
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what is trace decay?
the theory which largely explains why we forget over time. suggests thst learning causes a psysical change in the neural network creating a memory trace, once this trace is made it must be repeated to strengthen. i
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what is the study relating to memory?
context dependent memory experiment, Godden and Baddeley 1975
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what was the aim of godden and baddely 1975?
to investigate whether a natural environment can act as a cue for recall
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how many participants?
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who were they?
students of a diving club
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how many words did they have to learn
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how long were the words
2 or 3 syllables
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where would they learn the words?
underwater or on dry land
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where would they recall the words?
underwater or on dry land
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how were the divers allocated to one of 4 conditions?
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Card 2


what is Fatigue effect?


having done one of the tasks the participant does the next one worse because of being tired

Card 3


what is counter balancing?


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Card 4


what are the two theorys of memory?


Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5


What are the two types of rehersal that LOP suggests?


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