Psychology Unit 2 Learning Definitions

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Learning
A relatively permanent change in behaviour due to experience
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Classical conditioning
Learning through association (learning to associate a reflex response with a new stimulus)
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Unconditioned stimulus
The stimulus that produces a reflex response
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Unconditioned response
The reflex response to an unconditioned stimulus
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Neutral stimulus
A stimulus that doesn't produce the desired response
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Conditioned stimulus
A new stimulus presented alongside the unconditioned stimulus
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Conditioned response
The response that is learnt and now occurs when the conditioned stimulus is presented alone
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Extinction
A conditioned response dies out
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Spontaneous recovery
A conditioned response that has disappeared suddenly appears again
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Generalisation
The conditioned response is produced when a similar stimulus to the original conditioned stimulus is presented
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Discrimination
The conditioned response is only produced when a specific stimulus is presented
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Operant conditioning
Learning that takes place because of the consequences of behaviour
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Law of effect
Behaviours that are followed by a positive consequence (e.g reward) are likely to be repeated; those that are punished are not usually repeated
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Punishment
A stimulus that weakens behaviour because it is unpleasant and we try to avoid it
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Reinforcement
A consequence of behaviour that encourages or strengthens behaviour; this might be seen as a reward
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Positive reinforcement
A pleasant consequence of behaviour that increases the likelihood of the behaviour being repeated
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Negative reinforcement
An unpleasant experience is removed after a behaviour or action is made, therefore increasing the likelihood of the behaviour being repeated
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Behaviour shaping
Involves changing behaviour in small steps using reinforcement
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Phobia
A persistent and irrational fear of an object, activitiy, or situation. The typical symptoms are intense feelings of fear and anxiety to avoid the object, activity, and situation
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Flooding
A treatment for phobias that involves the immediate exposure of the person to the feared stimulus until there is no fear response
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Systematic Desensitisation
A treatment for phobias in which the person is taught to relax and then is gradually exposed to the feared stimulus
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Hierarchy of fears
A series of feared events ranked from least frightening to most frightening
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Aversion therapy
A treatment for addictions, which makes the addict have an extremely negative reaction to the negative substance thus reducing the likelihood of this behaviour being repeated
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Primary reinforcer
A reward that the person needs
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Secondary reinforcer
A reward such as money or a token which someone can exchange for a primary reinforcer
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Card 2

Front

Learning through association (learning to associate a reflex response with a new stimulus)

Back

Classical conditioning

Card 3

Front

The stimulus that produces a reflex response

Back

Preview of the back of card 3

Card 4

Front

The reflex response to an unconditioned stimulus

Back

Preview of the back of card 4

Card 5

Front

A stimulus that doesn't produce the desired response

Back

Preview of the back of card 5
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