Psychology Unit 1- Definition

Encoding
Information is changed or encoded so that it can be stored- done by; - visually (images), acoustically (sound) or semantically (meaning)
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Storage
Information is stored in the memory so it can be accessed later
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Retrieval
Retrieving the information form storage
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Duration
How long can information stay in the memory (few seconds- minutes- lifetime)
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Capacity
How much information can be stored in the memory (few items- limitless)
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Sensory Memory
Unencoded information is received through senses, held for few seconds before being passed on to STM
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Short- term Memory
Contains encoded information from- SM. Capacity 5-9 objects Duration- 30s
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Long- term Memory
The storehouse of memory that is not being currently used. Duration- Lifetime Capacity- Limitless
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Amnesia
Memory loss- usually caused my physical brain injury also by traumatic, emotional event
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Non- verbal Communication
Process of sending and receiving messages through; gesture, body language, posture, facial expressions & eye contact
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Verbal Communication
Speaking directly
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Paralinguistics
Vocal features that accompany speech; tone of voice, emphasis & intonation
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Personal Space
Emotionally charged bubble of space which surrounds each individual
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Personality
Relatively stable aspects of individuals the distinguish them from others, making them unique
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Temperament
Our inborn personality traits
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Antisocial Personality Disorder
Pervasive pattern of disregard for violation of the rights of others- begins childhood- adulthood
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Stereotyping
Shared belief about the characteristics of those who belong to a particular social/physical category
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Prejudice
An attitude, usually negative to a particular group of people, based on characteristics that all members have something in common
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Discrimination
Treating people differently on the basis of their membership of particular group
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Self-esteem
How we think and feel about ourselves
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Self- image
How we see yourself and how you believe others see you
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Hypothesis
A testable statement of what researchers predict what the study's outcome will be
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Independent Variable
The variable that is controlled by the researcher
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Dependent Variable
The measured outcome
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Ecological Validity
The degree to which findings from a study can be generalised beyond the research setting
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Experimental Group
Group that experiences independent variable
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Control Group
Group that does not experience the dependent variable
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Random Allocation
Randomly putting participants into different groups
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Counterbalancing
Reversing the order of the conditions for half of the participants
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Other cards in this set

Card 2

Front

Information is stored in the memory so it can be accessed later

Back

Storage

Card 3

Front

Retrieving the information form storage

Back

Preview of the back of card 3

Card 4

Front

How long can information stay in the memory (few seconds- minutes- lifetime)

Back

Preview of the back of card 4

Card 5

Front

How much information can be stored in the memory (few items- limitless)

Back

Preview of the back of card 5
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