Psychology - topic E

HideShow resource information
what are three biological causes of crime?
Adoption studies - mendick (1984), Twin studies (christanseen (1977), and XXY chromosons (theilguard)
1 of 25
what are three social causes of criminality?
seperation from caregiver (Bowlby 1946), Self-fullfing prophecy ( Rosenthal & Jacobsen (1968)), and childrearing stratergies
2 of 25
what did Medndick 1984 do?
examined 14,427 adopted children. He examined how many adopted children had criminal records, in comparison to their biological parents. He found that adopted children with criminal records for property theft, also had biological fathers with crimina
3 of 25
what did theilguaard find when he examined men with XXY chromosons
it does not provide a link to general criminality, XXY is exceptionally rare and therefore researchers are unable to examine large samples and XXY is also linked to slower learning, it may be that males with this abnormality turn to crime.
4 of 25
what did Christiansen (1977) do?
examined 3586 pairs of twin, if one MZ (identical) twin was a criminal there was a 52% chance the other would be. This link was found for property crime. This study also indicates a genetic link.
5 of 25
what family patterns can lead to crime?
Divorce -Typically boys with no father figure can often become aggressive,Family size
6 of 25
what did Bowlby (1946) do?
questioned 44 boy offenders about their crimes. 14 boys showed no shame or guilt about their crimes, 12/14 were seperated from care giver from age 2, remaining 30 only 5 were seperated from caregiver-this suggests a strong link
7 of 25
Farrington (2002) found that families with lots of children, around 6 or 7, were more likely to show higher rates of criminality. why could this be?
Lack of attention, lower income, fewer educational opportunities
8 of 25
what are the three childrearing statergies, with definition.
Induction- explaining to child what they have done wrong, Love withdrawl - parent withdrawls love to make child feel guilty, Power assertion - can involve hitting, smacking, criticism and the threat of punishment.
9 of 25
how can power assertion lead to aggression?
if Punishment is inconsistent, Punishment is severe/lengthy, verbal threats are not seen through,
10 of 25
what did Rosenthal & Jacobsen (1968) find?
the pupils that the teachers had higher expectations for did better in school eventhough the teacher was given a list at random of the children acedemic levels.
11 of 25
how did theeilguaard avoid researcher bias?
used a social worker who did the interviews to be unaware of the aim
12 of 25
three factors that might affect a jurys desicion making:
race, accent and apperance
13 of 25
what did Skolnick & Shaw (1997) find?
black and white jurors were less likey to find a black defendant guilty and Black jurors were more likely to find a white defendant guilty in comparison to a black defendant
14 of 25
what did Mahoney and Dixon (2002) find out?
found that ‘Brummies’ were more likely to be found guilty of an armed robbery. where as posh accents were more likely to be found guilty of fraud
15 of 25
Taylor and Butcher (2007) conducted a mock jury study, what did they find?
They found that more attractive people were judged as less guilty of a crime and given lower sentences than unattractive people.
16 of 25
what was Sigall and Ostrove (1975) aims?
1) To examine whether attractiveness affected jury decision making. 2) To examine whether there was a relationship between attractiveness and type of crime committed.
17 of 25
what two crimes did Sigall and Ostrove use in their study?
burlgry and fraud
18 of 25
what was Sigall and Ostrove method?
120 participants were divided into 6 groups (20 per group). Each group were given a piece of card with a crime written on it and a photograph of Barbara Helms.
19 of 25
start on week 3
start on week 3
20 of 25
what was Madons (2004) aim?
To examine whether a parent’s expectations of their child’s drinking habits , would become reality.
21 of 25
what method did Madon (2004) use?
115 children aged between 12-13 (and their parents) took part. Parents were asked to estimate how much alcohol their child drank and to predict how much they thought they would drink over the following year. One year later, the children were asked.
22 of 25
what was Madon (2004) results?
Children who drank the most alcohol were the ones whose parents predicted a greater use of alcohol.
23 of 25
what are two strenghts of Madons (2004) study?
A large sample was used so results are more valid. and the study could relate to most people as Parents should be wary about holding negative beliefs about their children
24 of 25
what are 3 weaknesses of Madon (2004) study?
it is not self-fullfing prophecy, it is just the parents accurate predictions. The study is only correlational-therefore the children could or had bad drinking habits because of other reasons. Questionnaires often have social desirability bias.
25 of 25

Other cards in this set

Card 2


what are three social causes of criminality?


seperation from caregiver (Bowlby 1946), Self-fullfing prophecy ( Rosenthal & Jacobsen (1968)), and childrearing stratergies

Card 3


what did Medndick 1984 do?


Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4


what did theilguaard find when he examined men with XXY chromosons


Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5


what did Christiansen (1977) do?


Preview of the front of card 5
View more cards


No comments have yet been made

Similar Psychology resources:

See all Psychology resources »See all Criminal behaviour resources »