Psychology Studies for Addiction Topic

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Lader and Matheson
SLT initiation to smoking- parents are one of main influence- children are 2x more likely to smoke if parents do. Shows that there is a focus on copying behaviour and role models
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Robins et al
Classical conditioning- Relapse to smoking- soldiers in Vietnam developed addiction when heroin was readily available, but went away when removed from environment. Less likely to relapse unless they were placed in similar environment.
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Karcher and Finn
SLT initiation to smoking- youths whose parents smoke-1.88x more likely to smoke, if siblings smoke-2.64x more likely, if freinds did-8x more likely
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Griffiths
Operant Conditioning-gambling- gamblers were more likely to get addicted because of physiological, psychological and financial rewards
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Lambos et al
Operant conditioning-gambling- if peers accept behaviour of gambling, they actually gambled more and planned to continue
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Comings et al (Biological approach)
A1 gene variant occurred in people with autism, which causes problems for the theory that DRD2 gene being reward gene, as they are not pleasure-seeking especially
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Volkow et al
Gave ritalin (dopamine-enhancing) to volunteers. Those who liked feeling had fewer dopamine D2 receptors than those who hated it. Some people are more vulnerable to dopamine than others
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Li et al (2008)
Research support for self medication model. Gamblers who did it to escape were more likely toi have other substance abuses. "self medicating" gamblers less likely to steal to fund habit and often have substitute means to satisfy goal
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Delfabbro et al (2006)
Non support. possessing relevant knowledge does not make people less susceptible to cognitive distortions. Pathological gamblers more irrational in cognition but as accurate in est. odds of winning
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Moolchan et al (2005)
Use of nicotine patches increased cessation rates only when used with CBT to change positive expectancies of smoking
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Juliano and Brandon (2004)
Smokers reported greater expectancies that cigarettes alleviate negative mood states. Also thought they had positive effect on weight control
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Bandura (1977)
SLT- behaviours learned throgh observation and modelling of role models. Young people likely to imitate those they have most social contact with
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Abrams and Hogg (1990)
Social identity theory- group members adopt norms and behaviours central to social identity of group. If status as smoker or non-smoker is central=more liekly to be similar in smoking habits
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Brown et al (1997)
Influence of peers on behaviour wanes later in adolescence and it is more influenced by romantic partners and close friends
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NIDA (1999)
People smoke, drink and gamble to cope with daily hassles. these stressors contribute to initiation and maintenance of addiction
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Drissen et al (2008)
Exposal to severe stress makes a person more vulnerable to addiction. PTSD linked to addiction. 30% drug addicts and 15% alcoholics had PTSD
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Shram (2008)
Age differences in neural responses to nicotine administration in rats. Adolescent rats more sensitive to positive effects, less to negavtive ones. Rewarding effects higher in adolescent rats- prime time for addiction to occur
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Hazan et al
Since 1960, top grossing films showed characters smoking at 3x rate of normal American Adult. Viewing people smoking can affect smoking behaviours in adolescents- SLT
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Stead and Lancaster
Review of 41 studies-compare combinations of beh. support and medication to usual/less beh. support. Intensive intervention (NRT+group sessions and LT contact) is very effective, and combination treatment can increase chances of quitting by 70-100%
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Naltrexone Study
91% participants who were given naltrexone responded positively compared to only 45.5% who were given SSRIs. Gambling symptoms are relieved with naltrexone treatment
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Sindelar et al (2007)
Reinforcement therapy- reward group and non-reward group- people in reward group given amounts of money each time they tested neg. for drugs. Drug use dropped in reward group- neg. urine samples=60% higher in reward group
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Higgins et al (1994)
Reinforcement therapy- 28 cocaine addicts had urine tested- given $2.50 voucher when clear. 10 consecutive clear tests=$17.50 voucher. Received counselling on how to spend vouchers. 86% people stayed on for 12 weeks, 2/3rds stayed on for 6 months
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Ladouceur et al
CBT- placed pps either on CT course or control group waiting list. 86% people who completed course no longer met DSM criteria- increased sense of control
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Cavalloet
CBT- compared 45 minute sessions of weekly CBT to 15 minute sessions of beh. counselling 3x week. Found that CBT was more effective for teens who wanted to stop smoking
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Greaber et al
MET- motivational approaches=more effective than conventional methods. Gets clients to identify goals they want to work on
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Heetema et al
MET- more effective than any other treatment for helping to give up tobacco addiction
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Lundalh et al
MET- equally effective when compared to other interventions for marijuana addiction, more effective than no treatment by 15%
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Classical conditioning- Relapse to smoking- soldiers in Vietnam developed addiction when heroin was readily available, but went away when removed from environment. Less likely to relapse unless they were placed in similar environment.

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Robins et al

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SLT initiation to smoking- youths whose parents smoke-1.88x more likely to smoke, if siblings smoke-2.64x more likely, if freinds did-8x more likely

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Operant Conditioning-gambling- gamblers were more likely to get addicted because of physiological, psychological and financial rewards

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Operant conditioning-gambling- if peers accept behaviour of gambling, they actually gambled more and planned to continue

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