Psychology - Stereotyping, Prejudice and Discrimination

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Stereotype
An oversimplified, generalised set of ideas that we have about others.
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Advantages of Stereotyping
Helpful when we need to make snap judgements, enables us to remember information about other and respond appropriately.
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Disadvantage of Stereotyping
Stops us seeing the real person, can make mistakes about others and can be difficult to overcome.
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Prejudice
A rigid set of attitudes or beliefs towards particular groups of people.
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Discrimination
The way an individual behaves towards another person or group as a result of the prejudice view
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Authoritarian Personality
A personality type that is prone to being prejudiced.
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F - scale
The questionnaire used by Adorno to measure personality characteristics
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Authoritarian Personality Study - Adorno; Aim
To find out if there is a relationship between a persons personality type and prejudice beliefs
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Adorno; Method
Hundreds of people were interviewed and tested using F-scale.
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Adorno; Results
They found a relationship between personality traits and prejudice views.
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Adorno; Conclusion
There is an authoritarian personality and people with these characteristics are highly likely to be prejudice towards others.
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Robbers Cave Experiment - Sherif; Aim
To find out if prejudice develops when groups are in competition for resources.
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Sherif; Method
An American summer camp was organised for 22 boys who were split in two. They were not aware other team existed and were given time to settle and form group identity. They discovered each other and staff introduced series of competitions with a prize
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Sherif; Results
The teams became unpleasant name-calling towards each other and tried to attack each other.
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Sherif; Conclusion
Competition is a cause of prejudice
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Reducing prejudice and Discrimination - Sherif
Arranged activities to get them to become friends. Set up a situation where a truck was **** in mud and needed pulling out. Cooperation is a way of reducing prejudice between groups
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Practical Implications - Sherif
Tasks in communities that need groups to work together to complete.
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In-groups and Out-groups Study - Tajfel; Aim
To show how easily people discriminate against their out-groups.
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Tajfel; Method
14-15 year old boys were randomly assigned to two groups. Each boy was given a game to play were he had to award pairs of points. They were told the points could be swapped for prizes at the end.
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Tajfel; Results
They boys awarded points by choosing the pairings that created the biggest difference between groups not pairing that gave them the highest points.
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Tajfel; Conclusion
People will discriminate against others just because they are members of an out-group.
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Reducing Prejudice and Discrimination - Aronson
Eliminate prejudice between black and white students. Used jigsaw method - students mixed up and took responsibility for part of the lesson. They had become experts and passed on their knowledge.
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Practical Implications - Aronson
Suggests that within schools and workplaces prejudice could be reduced.
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Elliot; Aim
To teach her class what it felt like to be victims of discrimination.
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Elliot; Method
Elliot told her class blue eyed children are smarter and better and brown eyed children cannot play with blue eyes as they are not as good.
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Elliot; Results
Blue-eyed children were delighted and arrogant. Brown-eyed were angry and withdrawn. Fights broke out and next day Elliot reversed it and same happened.
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Elliot; Conclusion
Elliot believed that by getting the children to experience what it felt like to be the victim then these children would grow up being more tolerant towards others.
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Practical Implications - Elliott
Method of creating empathy within her children worked but children need to experience this at an early age.
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Harwood; Aim
To investigate children's views of the elderly.
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Harwood; Method
Harwood asked children and their grandparents about they relationship. The children were also questioned about their views of the elderly in general.
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Harwood; Results
Children who had regular contact with grandparents held positive views towards the elderly.
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Hardrood; Conclusion
Contact with grandparents is a good predictor of a child's attitude towards to elderly.
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Practical Implications - Harwood
Research illustrates the importance of regular contact between children and grandparents.
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Other cards in this set

Card 2

Front

Advantages of Stereotyping

Back

Helpful when we need to make snap judgements, enables us to remember information about other and respond appropriately.

Card 3

Front

Disadvantage of Stereotyping

Back

Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4

Front

Prejudice

Back

Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5

Front

Discrimination

Back

Preview of the front of card 5
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