Psychology - Social Influence

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  • Created by: ThanyaA
  • Created on: 30-03-16 00:18
Define conformity.
A form of social influence that results from exposure to the majority position and leads to compliance with that position. Tendency to adopt the behaviour, attitudes and values of other members of a referenced group.
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Define normative social influence.
Desire to be liked. Form of influence where an individual conforms with the expectations of the majority in order to gain approval.
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Define informational social influence.
Form of influence, which is the result of a desire to be right- looking to others as a way of gaining evidence about reality
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What are the three types of conformity?
Compliance, Internalisation and Identification
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Define compliance.
Occurs when an individual accepts influence because they hope to achieve a favourable reaction from those around them. An attitude/behaviour is adopted not because of its content, but because of the rewards or approval associated with its adoption.
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Define internalisation.
Occurs when an individual accepts influence because the content of the attitude or behaviour proposed is consistent with their own value system.
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define identification.
A form of influence where an individual adopts an attitude or behaviour because they want to be associated with a particular person/group.
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Describe Asch's (1956) study.
123 males were part of the study. Participants were asked to look at 3 lines of different lengths and took turn to call out which of the 3 lengths matched the standard lengths. However, groups consisted of confederates with 1 real participants.
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What were Asch's findings?
The average conformity rate was 33%. Found individual differences in conformity rates.1/4 never conformed. Many showed compliance.
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What are the variables that affect conformity?
group size, unanimity of the majority and and the difficulty of the task.
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How does group size affect conformity?
The smaller the group size, the lower the conformity rate is.
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How does the unanimity of the majority affect conformity?
If one more person agrees with the participant, then conformity rates would fll.
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How does the difficulty of the task affect conformity?
The more difficult the task, the more likely a person is to conform.
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Describe the procedure of Stanford's Prison Experiment.
Mock prison was set up with 24 participants. They were given either a guard costume or prisoner costume. Planned to last 2 weeks.
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What were Zimbardo's finding from the SPE?
The guards grew aggressive towards the prisoners and forced them to carry out degrading activities. 5 prisoners released due to extreme reactions. Terminated after 6 days & found how people conform to social roles
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Describe the procedure of the BBC prison study.
15 men were randomly assigned to the roles of prisoners or guards & put into groups of 3. Study0 ran for 8 days.
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What were the findings from the BBC prison study?
Prisoners worked collectively to challenge the authority of the guards. Guards failed to identify with their roles. Led to a shift of power and the collapse of the prisoner-guard system.
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Define obedience to authority.
A type of social influence where somebody acts in response to a direct order from a figure with perceived authority.
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Describe Milgram's experiment on obedience.
Participants needed to be the teachers and ask the learners (fake participants) questions. Each time they got a question wrong, they were given an electric shock. Given prods, e.g. 'You have no choice, you must go on'.
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What were Milgram's findings from his experiment?
Very few would go above 150V. 65% continued to max. shcok. 100% went to 300V.
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What situational factors affect obedience?
Proximity, Location and the power of uniform.
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Define the agentic state.
When a person sees themselves as an agent for carrying out another person's wishes. Usually done to maintain positive self-image.
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Define legitimate authority.
A person who is perceived to be in a position of social control within a situation. Requires an institution, e.g the military.
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Define the Authoritatian Personaltiy.
A distinct personality pattern characterised y strict adherence to conventional values and a belief in absolute obedience or submission to authority.
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What is the F Scale?
AKA California F (Fascist) Scale. Developed in California in 1947 as a measure of authoritarian traits or tendencies.
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What is right wingauthoritarianism?
A cluster of personality variables that are associated with a right wing attitude to life.
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Define dispositional.
Explanations of behaviour such as obedience emphasise them being caused by an individual's own personal characteristics rather than situational influences within the environment.
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Describe the procedure from Elms and Milgram's (1966) experiment.
20 obedient & 20 defiant participants were chosen to complete MMPI scale F scale to measure authoritarianism.
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What were the findings from the 1966 experiment?
Higher levels of authoritarianism amongst participants classified as obedient.
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Define social influence in terms of resisting social influence.
This is the perception that an individual has assistance available from other people, and that they are part of a supportive network
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Define the locus of control in terms of resisting social influence.
People differ in their beliefs about whether the outcomes of their actions are dependent on what they do (internal) or on events outside their personal control (external).
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Define externality.
Individuals who tend to believe that their behaviour and experience is caused by events outside their control.
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Define internality.
Individuals who tend to believe that they are responsible for their behaviour and experience rather than external force.
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Define minority influence.
A form of social influence where members of the majority group change their beliefs or behaviours as a result of their exposure to a persuasive minority.
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Explain the first step of the minority influence.
Consistency - minority influence is effective provided there is stability in the expressed position over time and agreement among different members of the minority.
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Explain the second step pf the minority influence.
Commitment - the degree to which members of a minority are dedicated to a particular cause or activity. The greater the perceived commitment, the greater the influence.
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Explain the third step to the minority influence.
Flexibility - a willingness to be able to compromise when expressing a position.
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Describe the experiment done by Moscovic et al (1969)
4 naive participants and 2 minority confederates were shown a series of blue slides & were asked to judge the colour of the slide. Confederates continuously suggested the slides were green.
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What were the findings from Moscovici's experiment?
Over *% of the trials were the naive participants influence by the minority. Inconsistent minority exerted little influence.
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Define social change.
Occurs when a society or section of society adopts a new belief or way of behaving which then becomes widely accepted as the norm.
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What are the 5 steps of social change through minority influence?
Drawing attention to an issue, cognitive conflict, consistency of position, the augmentation principle and the snowball effect.
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Explain the first step of social change through minority influence
Minorities draw the majority's attention to an issue, creating a conflict that they are motivated to reduce.
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Explain the second step of social change through minority influence.
Minority create conflict between what majority believe and the position advocated by the minority. Allows majority to think more deeply about issues being challenged.
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Explain the third step of social change through minority influence.
Arguments by the minority must be explained consistently to be more influential.
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Explain the fourth step of social change through minority influence.
If a minority appears willing to suffer or their views, they are seen as more committed and are taken more seriously.
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Explain the final step of social change through minority influence.
Minority influence has a relatively small effect but this then spreads more widely as more people consider the issues being promoted, until it reaches a tipping point. This leads to a wide scale social change.
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Define social norms interventions.
Attempt to correct misperceptions of the normative behaviours of peers in an attempt to change the risky behaviour of a target population.
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Card 2

Front

Define normative social influence.

Back

Desire to be liked. Form of influence where an individual conforms with the expectations of the majority in order to gain approval.

Card 3

Front

Define informational social influence.

Back

Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4

Front

What are the three types of conformity?

Back

Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5

Front

Define compliance.

Back

Preview of the front of card 5
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