Social influence & research methods

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Define 'conformity'
A change in a person's behaviour as a result of group pressure
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What's the 'autokinetic effect'?
an optical illusion, in which a spot of light on a screen appears to move, when in actual fact it doesn't.
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Define 'social influence'
the effect other people have on our behaviour
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Define the term 'obedience'
Following the orders of someone we believe to have authority
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What is meant by 'buffer'?
something that creates distance between the teacher & learner
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What is 'socialisation'?
The way we are raised to behave and the things we are taught to accept as normal
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Define 'deindividuation'
the state of losing our sense of individuality & becoming less aware of our own responsibility for our actions
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What does 'anonymous' mean?
Being able to keep our identity hidden.
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What is meant by 'mundane realism'?
an everyday situation, that is lifelike and not artificial.
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What's CCTV?
a TV system often used for surveillance
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Define the term 'social loafing'
Putting less effort into doing something when you are with others doing the same thing
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What is culture?
a group of people (usually living in 1 place) who share similar customs, beliefs & behaviour.
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Diffusion of responsibility
In a group of people there's less need for the person to act because someone else who is present could also do something
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Define 'bystander apathy'
doing nothing in an emergency when someone's in need of help
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Empathy
being able to put yourself in someone else's position psychologically and understand how that person is feeling.
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Altruism
Helping someone without thinking of yourself, sometimes at great cost
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What is a practical implication?
Suggestions about behaviour in the real world beyond the research study, based upon what psychologists have discovered.
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Case study: Kitty Genovese
In 1964, Kitty Genovese was attacked in NYC. She was yards away from her home & the attack continued for over 30 mins before she was killed. Only afterwards did someone call 911. Anyone could've stopped the murder bc police came in 4 mins, no one did
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Sherif (1935) SUMMARY
Aim- discover effect on judgement of listening to others / Method- pps estimate how far spot of light moved in dark room w autokinetic effect / Results- variety of estimates, became very similar in 3s / Conc- used others opinions to help form judge
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Asch (1951) SUMMARY
influenced by previous opinions / sets of 4 lines / tested alone = rarely a mistake / pps also gave estimates as group / 32% trials pps also gave wrong answers / 32% error rate is due to hearing incorrect previous answers
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Milgram (1963) SUMMARY
Obey unreasonable order / 40 males / memory & learning / electric shock to learner for each wrong answer / shocks not real & learner was an actor / pp sat at shock generator / 15-450v / heard yelling / all gave 300v / 65% 450v / position of authority
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Bickman (1974) SUMMARY
More likely to obey an order from someone in uniform / actor dressed as guard & in casual jacket / pick up litter / 80% obeyed guard / 40% casual / wearing uniform increases sense that someone's an authority figure
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Zimbardo (1969) [car] SUMMARY
big city = more antisocial than small town / parked car w bonnet up & observed / in NYC people immediately stole parts / in Palo Alto only time was someone lowered it to stop getting wet / deindividuation caused by big city living increase antisocial
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Latane et al. (1979) SUMMARY
see if being in group affects effort / 84 pps shout & clap as loud as they could when alone or groups of 6 / each pp wore headphones / bigger group = less noise / less effort when know others are contributing
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Latane and Darley (1968) SUMMARY
less likely to react in emergency when others present / pps sit in room alone or in 3s / questionnaire / smoke poured into room / 75% sitting alone told someone in 6 mins / 38% in 3s / if others are around, you're less likely to react in emergencies
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Piliavin (1972) SUMMARY
to see if appearance influences helping behaviour / actor pretended to collapse in train / appearance altered / amount of help was recorded / walking stick = 90% time / facial scar = 60% / drunk = 20% / appearance affects if & when they get help.
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Define 'hypothesis'
a testable statement about the relationship between 2 variables
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What is the independent groups method?
Pps are split into 2 groups. One group takes part in one condition & the other group takes part in the other.
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What is meant by 'repeated measures'?
Pps do both conditions of experiment
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What is meant by 'matched pairs'?
pps are tested before taking part & are matched for qualities into pairs
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what is counterbalancing?
a procedure for evening out the order in which pps do both conditions of experiment
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what's random allocation?
putting pps into conditions by chance
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What is meant by 'randomisation'?
Using chance to produce an order for a procedure
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Opportunity sampling
Choosing people who are members of target population & are willing to take part
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Random sample
Every member of target population has equal chance of being chosen
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Stratified sample
Different subgroups in target population are identified; then people are randomly selected from these subgroups in proportion to their numbers in target population
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Systematic sample
Choosing every 'nth' member of target population
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How do you calculate the 'mean'?
Add together all values & then divide by total number of values in set
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What's the 'mode'?
Most frequently occurring value in a set of scores
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How do you find the 'median'?
Arrange all values in order (lowest to highest) then find middle value
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Calculating the range
Difference between lowest & highest value
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What's an 'anomalous result'?
an extremely high or low result that doesn't match other results
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Watson and Rayner (1920) SUMMARY
fear response conditioned / Albert 11 months old / lab rat / no fear of any white furry stuff / rat shown to him / metal bar hit very hard w hammer 7 times / rat shown again / he screamed / bar not hit, no noise / santa mask / fear responses learnt
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Practical implications into deindividuation:
When people wear uniforms in workplace, they don't behave like individuals, but as members of a business or firm. 1 reason why children must wear school uniforms- makes it harder to act independently, so easier to be controlled by set of rules
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Implications of research into bystander intervention
People do nothing. Research has shown that people who see a small boy being dragged in streets, crying for his mum are unlikely to intervene. Diffusion of responsibility stop people from getting involved.
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Other cards in this set

Card 2

Front

What's the 'autokinetic effect'?

Back

an optical illusion, in which a spot of light on a screen appears to move, when in actual fact it doesn't.

Card 3

Front

Define 'social influence'

Back

Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4

Front

Define the term 'obedience'

Back

Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5

Front

What is meant by 'buffer'?

Back

Preview of the front of card 5
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