Psychology - Sex and Gender

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  • Created by: alexhross
  • Created on: 05-06-16 13:29
Sex Identity
A biological term. A child's sex can be identified by their hormones and chromosomes. This determines whether the child's sex identity is male or female.
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Gender Identity
A psychological term. A child's gender can be identified by their attitudes and behaviour. This determines whether the child's gender identity is masculine or feminine.
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Male Hormone and Chromosomes
Testosterone and XY
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Female Hormone and Chromosomes
Oestrogen and **
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Psychodynamic Theory of Gender Development
Freud believed development happens in 5 stages. Phallic stage is 3rd stage and occurs between ages of 3 and 5. Child is unconsciously sexually desires the opposite sex parent and is jealous of same sex parent.
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Identification
To adopt attitudes and behaviours of same sex parent.
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Gender development in boys - Oedipus Complex
Conflict experienced by boys in phallic stage because he unconsciously desires mother and afraid of father and wants to take his place.
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Gender development in boys - Oedipus Complex continued
Becomes anxious father will find out and mother will castrate him. To deal with anxiety and resolve conflict he gives up feelings for mother and identifies with father. Behaves like father and adopts masculine gender roll
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Gender development in girls - Electra complex
Conflict experienced by a girl because she unconsciously desires her father and afraid of losing mothers love. Girls believe they have already been castrated so not as fearful as boys. To resolve, she identifies with mother and behaves in similar way
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Gender development in lone-parent household
Fred believes if they are brought up in alone parent household they will have poorly developed gender identity.
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Gender Disturbance
Not developing the gender identity usually associated with one's sex.
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Evaluation of Psychodynamic Theory
Difficult to test as they are based on unconscious thoughts and feelings. There has been a raise in lone-parent families but not in homosexuals. A wide range of factors influence a child's gender development. Little evidence to support.
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Social Learning Theory
Gender is learnt from watching and copying behaviour of others.
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Modelling
A role model provides an example for the child. People who are most likely to be role models for normally similar to them, powerful, loving and caring.
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Imitation
Copying the behaviour of a model
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Vicarious Reinforcement
Learning from the model's being either rewarded or punished.
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Media
Means of communication e.g. TV, radio and internet.
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Evaluation of Social Learning Theory
Well supported-large number of studies found out same. Does not explain why children brought up in one-parent do not have any difficulty developing their gender. Believes gender is learnt therefore ignores biological differences.
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Gender Schema
A mental building block of knowledge that contains information about each gender.
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Gender stereotypes
Believing that all males are similar and all females are similar.
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Individual Differences in Gender Development - Gender Role
Behaviour seen as masculine or feminine by a particular culture.
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Highly Gender Schematised
Where gender is an important way of thinking about the world so information is organised according to what is gender appropriate and what is gender inappropriate.
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Evaluation of Gender Schema Theory
Well supported by evidence. Fits in with our experiences. Doesn't explain why some children are more highly gender schematised or why gender begins to develop at age of 2.
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Card 2

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Gender Identity

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A psychological term. A child's gender can be identified by their attitudes and behaviour. This determines whether the child's gender identity is masculine or feminine.

Card 3

Front

Male Hormone and Chromosomes

Back

Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4

Front

Female Hormone and Chromosomes

Back

Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5

Front

Psychodynamic Theory of Gender Development

Back

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