Psychology SEX & GENDER

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  • Created by: ikrolivia
  • Created on: 21-10-15 10:36
What is the female hormone?
Oestrogen
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What is the male hormone?
Testosterone
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What experience do boys have?
Oediupus complex
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What experience do girls have?
Electra complex
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Phallic stage of development in boys
Unconsciously attracted to mother and jealous of father. Scared his father will castrate him when he finds out his feelings. Gives up feelings and identifies w/ mother. Begins to behave like father and adopts masculine gender.
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Freud (1909) SUMMARY
investigate Little Hans' phobia / age 4 = horse phobia / scared might bite / especially large white horses w black harnesses / dad wrote to Freud / unconsciously sexually desired mother / father rival / displaced fear / respresented w moustache
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Perry & Bussey hypothesis
In condition 1, they'll copy same sex. Whereas in condition 2, there'll be a mixture of girls & boys doing each activity.
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What kind of people are most likely to be role models?
Powerful people e.g. teachers, siblings / people who are similar to them e.g. same sex parent, friends / loving & caring people e.g. parents and teachers
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Define SOCIAL LEARNING THEORY
Gender is learnt from watching and copying the behaviour of others. Includes modelling, imitation and vicarious reinforcement.
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Define MODELLING
a role model provides an example for the child
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What is imitation?
Copying behaviour of a model
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What is meant by vicarious reinforcement?
learning from the model's being either punished or rewarded
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Male chromosome
XY
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Female chromosome
XX
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Define schema
A cognitive framework that helps us to organise and interpret information
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What is gender schema?
A mental building block of knowledge that contains info about each gender. We've gathered this info from experiences we've had and they can CHANGE OVER TIME
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What does it mean by 'highly gender schematised'?
Our way of thinking about the world is organised according to what is gender appropriate/inappropriate.
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Phallic stage
Freud's third stage of psychosexual development, where gender development happens
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Define SEX IDENTITY
a BIOLOGICAL term. A child's sex can be identified by their hormones & chromosomes. This determines where the child's sex identity is m or f.
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define GENDER IDENTITY
a PSYCHOLOGICAL term. A child's gender can be identified by their attitudes and behaviour. This determines whether the child's gender identity is m or f.
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Williams (1975) - SUMMARY
tv effects on development / kids in Canada / given TV at start for 1st time / other towns already had tv / measured attitudes at start and 2 yrs later / now tv = more sex stereotyped than 2 years before / gender learnt by imitating stuff on tv
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What is meant by the term 'gender stereotypes'?
Believing that all males are the same, and all female are the same
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Define 'gender role'
Behaviour seen as masculine or feminine by a particular culture
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What is 'gender disturbance'?
Not developing the gender identity usually associated with one's sex
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What is 'identification'?
Adopting the attitudes and behaviour of the same-sex parent
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Evaluation of gender schema theory of gender development
Doesn't explain why some kids are more highly gender schematised // why gender develops at age 2
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What is the male hormone?

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Testosterone

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What experience do boys have?

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Card 4

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What experience do girls have?

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Card 5

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Phallic stage of development in boys

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