Psychology - Research methods Unit 1

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Define IV
something that the researcher changes/manipulates
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Define DV
the thing your measuring
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Define hypothesis
a precaution of what will happen
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Define informed consent
investigator informs participants about all aspects of the study and they should sign a consent form to agree
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Define withdrawal from the investigation
investigator should make it clear to participants that they can stop their participation in the study at any point if they don't feel comfortable
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Define deception
the withholding of information or the misleading of participants about any aspect of the study is not allowed
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define debriefing
after the study the investigator should provide them with any necessary information to understand the nature of the research
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define confidentiality
information about a participant is confidential unless otherwise agreed in advance
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define protection of participants
researchers responsibility to ensure that they protect participants from all physical and mental harm during the investigation
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define aim
what the researcher is trying to discover
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define a lab experiment
conducted in a highly controlled environment where the IV can be manipulated as many times at they want
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define field experiment
conducted in the natural environment but the researcher can still manipulate the IV
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define natural experiment
conducted in the natural environment where the researcher doesn't have any control over the IV
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Define extraneous variables
unwanted variables that effect the DV
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Define the two types of extraneous variables= situational and participant variable
situational= aspects of the environment that affect the results e.g.:temp or noise. Participant= characteristics of an individual that may affect results e.g.: age, sex
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Strengths and weaknesses of a lab experiment
researcher has high control over extraneous variables and study can be repeated by other researchers. however it has low ecological validity and demand characteristics means that the participant has a clue about what the researchers trying to find
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Strengths and weaknesses of a field+natural experiment
high ecological validity and reduction of demand characteristics, however more likely to be effected by extraneous variables and difficult to repeat by other researchers
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define repeated measures
when a participant is used in both conditions of the study
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strengths+weaknesses of repeated measures
participant variables do not affect results+quick, easy to gather data however the researcher has to prepare twice as much materials
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define counterbalancing (ABBA)
where half of participants complete the experiment in one condition whilst the other half do the reverse.
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Define order effects
factors which relate to the order in which participants experience the conditions which can affect their performance. e.g.: boredom and tiredness
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define indépendant measures
different participants are used in different conditions of the study
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strengths+weaknesses of independent measures
no practice effects as different people take part in different conditions. however participant variables affect results as different people are in each condition (e.g. IQ, age)
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define matched paris
different participants are used but paired together so each pair is as alike as possible
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strengths+weaknesses of matched pairs
stops participant variables however is a very long process
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define random allocation (to do with matched pairs)
divides their participants into each of the different conditions to prevent biased e.g.:pick 10 names out of a hat for condition one. then the rest for condition two
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define randomisation
way of choosing order that materials are presented in. therefore each material has an equal chance of being picked first/last etc
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define sampling (ROSS)
concerned with the selection of participants
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define target population
The wider population of people that the sample is drawn from+ who the results of research is aimed about
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define random sampling
every member of the TP has an equal chance of being chosen
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define opportunity sampling
using participants who are the easiest to find for the experiment
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define systematic sampling
every 'nth' member of the TP is selected
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define stratified sampling
sub groups within a population are identified
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strengths+weaknesses of random sampling
no bias during selection process however its time consuming as everyone in TP is involved
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strengths+weaknesses of opportunity sampling
easy and quick to gather participants however may not represent the TP
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strengths+weaknesses of stratified sampling
most representative however time consuming+ needs to know characteristics of TP therefore time consuming
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strengths+weaknesses of systematic sampling
avoids researcher bias however needs a list of TP+ may be unrepresentative and biased by chance
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define mean
the average. add them all up and divide by the total number
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define mode
the most common
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define median
the middle value in a set of numbers which are in a numerical order
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define range
difference between highest and lowest number/scores
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define percentage
divide smaller number by the bigger one then times by 100
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define anomalous results
if one of the values in set of scores does not meet the pattern
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Other cards in this set

Card 2


Define DV


the thing your measuring

Card 3


Define hypothesis


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Card 4


Define informed consent


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Card 5


Define withdrawal from the investigation


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