Psychology research methods key terms

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Hypothesis
An explanation with currently little or no evidence
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Theory
When a hypothesis accounts for all the evidence
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Model
Theories that are combined to create a whole process, they can suggest hypothesis
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Law
When a phenomenon always occurs when a certain set of conditions are met
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Rational
The evidence is thought through logically
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Empirical
Practiacl evidnece which is conducted in the real world and comes from the senses eg. an observation
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Falsification
Popper said all theories should be able to be proven wrong
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Replicability
All testing should be capeable of being tested again
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Validity
Measure what you intend to measure, true and accurate, conducted properly and honestly
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Reliability
Replication of results shows reliablitly as its consistant and is supported by other evidence
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Research methods
The means by which explanations are tested
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Experimental method
A resaerch method using random allocation of pps and manipulation of variables to determine cause and effect
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Independent variable
The factor manipulated by researchers in an investigation
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Dependent variable
The factor measured by researchers in an investiagtion
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Operationalism of variables
Process of defining variables into measurable factors
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Extraeneous variables
Variables other than IV that may affect DV
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Demand characteristics
Participants may guess aim and so chnage characteristics accordingly
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Investigator effect
Research effect where researcher influences ppts responses
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Laboratory experiment
Conducted in a controlled environment
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Field experiment
Naturalistic environment where IV is manipulated
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Natural experiment
IV occurs naturally
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Quasi experiment
IV is unmanipulated or conditions are randomly allocated
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Naturalistic observations
Surveillance and recording of naturally occuring events
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Behavioural categories
Dividing target behaviours into subsets through coding systems
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Inter-observer reliablilty
Observers consitently code behaviour in the same way
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Self-report techniques
Ppts giving information witgout interference of researcher
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Questionnaires
Self report methd where pptss record own answers to preset list of Q's
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Interviews
Self report method where ppts answer questions in a face to face situation
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Correlational studies
Factors measured in a correcaltional study to show strength of relationship
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Co-variables
Variables investigated in a correlation. (not called IV/DV because they are meauring relationship not cause/effect)
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Other cards in this set

Card 2

Front

When a hypothesis accounts for all the evidence

Back

Theory

Card 3

Front

Theories that are combined to create a whole process, they can suggest hypothesis

Back

Preview of the back of card 3

Card 4

Front

When a phenomenon always occurs when a certain set of conditions are met

Back

Preview of the back of card 4

Card 5

Front

The evidence is thought through logically

Back

Preview of the back of card 5
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