Psychology - Research Methods

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  • Created by: alexhross
  • Created on: 01-06-16 18:34
Independent Groups
Participants are divided into 2 groups. One group takes part in one condition and the other in the remaining condition.
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Advantages of Independent Groups
No order effects and participants cannot work out the aim.
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Disadvantages of Independent Groups
Participant variables and need more people for the study.
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Repeated Measures
One group of participants which take part in both conditions.
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Advantages of Repeated Measures
No participant variables and do not need as many people.
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Disadvantages of Repeated Measures
May have order effects and participants may work out the aim.
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Matched Pairs
Participants are tested before taking part and matched for qualities into pairs. One member takes part in one condition and the other in the remaining one.
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Advantages of Matched Pairs
Participant variables are reduced and no order effects.
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Disadvantaged of Matched Pairs
Matching is difficult, time consuming and participant variables are still present.
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Standardised Procedures
A set of order of carrying out a study that is applied to all participants when necessary.
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Random Allocation
A procedure for putting participants into conditions according to chance.
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A procedure for evening out the order in which participants complete both conditions.
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Using chance to produce an order for a produce
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The small group of people who represent the target population and who are studied.
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Target Population
The large group of people who the researcher wishes to study.
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The sample of participants is made up of people who have same characteristics and abilities as target population.
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Random Sampling
Every member of the target population has an equal chance of being selected for the sample
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Advantages and Disadvantages of Random Sampling
No researcher bias and likely to be representative. However, it is time-consuming
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Opportunity Sampling
People who are members of the target population and are available and willing to take part.
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Advantages and Disadvantages of Opportunity Sampling
Quick and Easy. Not likely to be representative and may have researcher bias.
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Systematic Sampling
Every nth member of the target population is selected for the sample.
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Advantages and Disadvantages of Systematic Sampling
Simple procedure and no researcher bias. Sample may be not representative.
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Stratified Sampling
The different subgroups in the target population are identified then the people are randomly selected from these subgroups in proportion to their numbers in the target population.
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Advantages and Disadvantages of Stratified Sampling
Very representative but very time consuming.
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Ethical Issues
Points of concern about what is morally right
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Should be confidential and participants should give informed consent. Avoid deception and participants have to right to withdraw.
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Psychologists should only give advice if they are qualified.
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Researchers must protect participants from harm and should be debriefed at the end.
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Psychologists should behave with honesty and fairness. They should consider benefits of the research.
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Other cards in this set

Card 2


Advantages of Independent Groups


No order effects and participants cannot work out the aim.

Card 3


Disadvantages of Independent Groups


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Card 4


Repeated Measures


Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5


Advantages of Repeated Measures


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