psychology- research methods

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independant variable
the thing you change to see if there is a cause and effect
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dependent variable
the thing that is measured
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clearly breaking something down to make it measureable
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extraneous variables
other variables which effect the dependent variable. Such as temperature, light and location
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confounding variables
any variable othr than the IV that may effect the DV
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demand characterstics
cues in the environment that cause you to guess the aim of the study which may lead to participant reactivity
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participant reactivity
the participants react to cues from the researchers
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evaluation apprehension
when the participant changes their behaviour to be seen in a more favourable light
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investigator effects
the effect on the investigators behaviour on the research outcome
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participants are randomly split into groups to prevent bias
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when the researcher uses the same formalised procedures on participants in a study
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ecological validity
when the finding can be generalised through real life settings. Does it refflect a real life environment
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temporal validity
can the findings be generalised over different time periods
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internal validity
when the study measures what it intends to measure
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population validity
can the findings be generalised to the target population
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can it be replicated and repeated
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a general statement of what the researcher intends to investigate, the purpose of the study
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a clear precise testable statement that states the relationship between the variables to be investigated outset of any study
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measuring the effects in all possible ways and situations
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independent groups design
when you have two or more separate groups each containing different individuals where each participant only takes part in on condition once
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repeated measures design
uses the same subjects with every branch of research including the control. Repeated measurements are collected in a longditudinal study which change over time is assessed
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matched pairs design
pairs of participants are first matched on some variables that may affect the DV for example IQ. Then one member from condition A and B are assigned
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sample bias
some members of the intended population are less likely to be included than others
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inconditioning, the tendency to transfer a response from one stimulus to another which is quite similar
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correct rules and conducts that you should follow when doing an experiment
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pilot study
trail run of a study on a much smaller scale to identify what may go wrong
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naturalistic observation
watching and recording behaviour in the setting within which it would normally occur
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controlled observation
researchers attempt to control ceratin variables
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overt observation
participants behaviour is watched and recorded with their knowledge and consent
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covert observation
paricipants behaviour is watched and recorded without their knowledge or consent
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behavioural categories
when a target behaviour is broken up into components that are observable and measureable
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time sampling
a sampling method that involves the acquisition of representative samples by observing subjects at different time intervals. These can be chosen randomly and systematically
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event sampling
this consists of the researcher recording an event every time it appears or happens
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coding units
the format in which information is stored in various memory stores. List of things observed and placed in a tally table
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closeed questions
structured and can be restricted
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open questions
doesn't have a fixed rnage of answers
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the variables consisting in a correlation
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a mathematical technique in which a researcher investigates an association between two variables called co-variables
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any means of extracting meaning from data that uses numerical data as the basis for investigation and interpretation
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data that is expressed in words and non-numerical data
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primary data
information that has been obtained first hand
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secondary data
information that has already been collected by somebody else
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research about research. Refers to the process of combing results from a number of studies on a particular topic to provied an overall view
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measure of dispersion
the general term for any measure of the spread or variation in aset of scores (range and standard deviation)
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measures of centeral tendancy
the general term for any measure of the average value in a set of data (mean, mode and median)
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descriptive statistics
the use of graphs, tables and summary statistics to identify trends an analyse sets of data
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Card 2


the thing that is measured


dependent variable

Card 3


clearly breaking something down to make it measureable


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Card 4


other variables which effect the dependent variable. Such as temperature, light and location


Preview of the back of card 4

Card 5


any variable othr than the IV that may effect the DV


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