Psychology Paper Two

Why would you never use people under 16?
Because they can be classed as 'vulnerable'. Never use anybody that can be classed as vulnerable.
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What about consent?
Always use 'Valid Consent' from all participants, tell them what is to be expected and allow them to refuse.
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What else about Ethics?
Debrief your participants, tell them of any deception, allow them to withdraw. Consult others on the 'script' you will be using.
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Key words: Aims?
The statement the researcher intends to find out during the study.
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To inform participants of the true nature of the study and restore them to the same state they were at the beginning of the study.
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Dependant Variable
The variable measured by the experimenter.
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Directly manipulated by the experimenter in order to test its events on the other variable.
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Confounding variable
Any variable which varies systematically with the independent variable that might potentially affect the dependant variable and thereby confound the results.
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Ethical issues
Concerns questions of right and wrongs of the experiment goals, procedures and outcomes.
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A research methods where casual conclusions can be drawn because an independent variable has to be directly manipulated to observe the casual effect on the dependent variable.
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A precise and testable statement about the assumed relationships between variables.
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Ensuring all variables are in a form that can be easily tested.
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Standardised procedure
A set of procedures that are the same for all participants in order to be able to repeat the study.
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Valid Consent
Participants must be given detailed information concerning the nature and purpose of the research and their role in it, in order for them to make an informed decision about whether to participate.
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Is the effect genuine
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How the variable is regulated by the experimenter.
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External Validity
thedgree in which a research finding can be generalised to the population
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What about other places and other settings?
Ecological validity
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The people who are studied?
Population validity, if a study contained all men it could not be generalised.
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How about the historical period as if it was conducted in the 50s?
Historical validity
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Describe Mundane Realism
How a study mirrors the real world, the study is realistic to the degree to which the experiences encountered in the research environment will occur in the real world.
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Internal validity and external.
this is about control and realism - external is about generlisation
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Extraneous variables
Do not mess with the Iv but may act as another IV so so may have an effect on the DV. They make it more difficult to detect a difference.
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HYPOTHESES - What is an alternative hypothesis
Any hypothesis that is different to the null one, this is the alternative hypothesis.
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What is a confederate?
An individual who is not a participant but has been instructed on how to perform during the study.
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A directional hypothesis?
States the direction of the predicted difference between the two conditions or two groups of participants.
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What is a pilot study?
A small scale trial study to test the design with a view to make any improvements.
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Experimental hypothesis
This is the term used to describe the alternative hypothesis in an experiment.
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Non-directional hypothesis
States there is a difference between the two conditions without stating the direction or the difference.
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Null hypothesis.
The assumption of no relationship between the variables being studied.
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Other cards in this set

Card 2


What about consent?


Always use 'Valid Consent' from all participants, tell them what is to be expected and allow them to refuse.

Card 3


What else about Ethics?


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Card 4


Key words: Aims?


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Card 5




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