Psychology - Paper 1 - Attachment - Ainsworth's strange situation

What is the strange situation?
Technique used to identify types of attachment, controlled observation in a lab, allows researchers to observe infant under mild stress when in presence of a stranger and separated from caregiver, new environment.
1 of 25
What sort of behaviours are the researchers observing and recording?
Researchers are behind a two way mirror and record behaviour such as contact seeking behaviour e.g. moving towards caregiver every 15 seconds. Series of 3min episodes: mum and baby play, stranger interacts, mum leaves and then return.
2 of 25
What 4 things did Ainsworth look at when identifying attachment type?
How the child used the mum as a safe base for exploration, stranger anxiety, separation anxiety and reunion behaviour.
3 of 25
How many types of attachment did Ainsworth develop?
3
4 of 25
What are the 3 types of attachment?
Secure, insecure avoidant and insecure resistant.
5 of 25
What percent of children had a secure attachment?
66%
6 of 25
What are the characteristics of a child with a secure attachment?
Happy to explore but CG is a secure base, anxious around strangers and uses CG as safe base, distressed when CG leaves, happy to see CG and easily soothed, CG is sensitive to child's needs.
7 of 25
What percent of children have an insecure avoidant attachment?
22%
8 of 25
What are the characteristics of a child with an insecure avoidant attachment?
Happy to explore and CG not used as safe base, not anxious of stranger, no distress when CG leaves, shows little reaction on return, CG is indifferent to child's needs.
9 of 25
What percent of children have an insecure resistant attachment?
12%
10 of 25
What are the characteristics of a child with an insecure resistant attachment?
Not happy to explore, very anxious of stranger, intense distress when CG leaves, hard to sooth as both rejects and seeks contact, CG is ambivalent to child's needs.
11 of 25
What is 1/2 strength of Ainsworth's types of attachment?
The Strange Situation produces consistent results, produces same results when the same child is tested over time. Shows it's reliable.q
12 of 25
What's 2/2/ strength?
Attachment type is a good predictor of later development. Securely attached children have better outcomes in many areas e.g. cognitive development. The continuity between attachment type and later development is evidence for the validity.
13 of 25
What is 1/4 weakness?
Artificial way of testing attachment. Carried out in a lab, with CG and stranger acting through a script. Different from day to day situations.
14 of 25
What is 2/4 weakness?
Ethical issues - infants are stressed on purpose to see reactions which may cause psychological harm.
15 of 25
What is 3/4 weakness?
Strange situation is a culture-bound test. Designed in USA and infants and CG act in different ways depending on what culture they're from e.g. in Japan, CG and infants are rarely split so would experience high levels of anxiety when spilt.
16 of 25
What is 4/4 weakness?
Children act differently depending on which parent they're with. Children may be securely attached to one parent and insecurely attached to another. Suggests attachment type isn't a fixed characteristic.
17 of 25
Which 2 theorists looked into cultural variations in attachment?
Ijzendoorn and Kroonenberg
18 of 25
What did they study?
Summarised the results of 32 studies undertaken in 8 countries in a meta-analysis. 1990 strange situations and included 35+ monther-infant pairs.
19 of 25
What did they find?
Secure attachment was most common, lowest % of secure attachment was in China whereas the highest was in UK. Highest % of insecure avoidant was in West Germany but rare in Israel. Highest % of insecure resistant in Japan but lowest in Sweden and UK.
20 of 25
What is 1/2 strengths of the cultural variation studies?
The study has a large sample size - meta-analysis nearly 2000 mother-infant pairs were studied. Large samples increase validity as they reduce the impact of anomalous results.
21 of 25
What is 2/2 strength?
The strange situation is the only test of infant attachment that has been used in several countries. This suggests that it's a valid and reliable tool and enables comparisons across countries.
22 of 25
What is 1/3 weaknesses?
Not all cultures are represented - sample size from many countries was small which lowers validity of study and limits its universal conclusions.
23 of 25
What is 2/3 weakness?
Researchers studied countries not cultures - later research showed that attachment styles in urban Tokyo were similar to western studies but in rural Japan there was an over-representation of insecure-resistant children.
24 of 25
What is 3/3 weakness?
The method of assessment is biased - The strange situation was made in USA/UK and may not be applicable to other cultures which means the study suffers from imposed etic.
25 of 25

Other cards in this set

Card 2

Front

What sort of behaviours are the researchers observing and recording?

Back

Researchers are behind a two way mirror and record behaviour such as contact seeking behaviour e.g. moving towards caregiver every 15 seconds. Series of 3min episodes: mum and baby play, stranger interacts, mum leaves and then return.

Card 3

Front

What 4 things did Ainsworth look at when identifying attachment type?

Back

Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4

Front

How many types of attachment did Ainsworth develop?

Back

Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5

Front

What are the 3 types of attachment?

Back

Preview of the front of card 5
View more cards

Comments

No comments have yet been made

Similar Psychology resources:

See all Psychology resources »See all Attachment resources »