Psychology - Non-Verbal Communication

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  • Created by: alexhross
  • Created on: 01-06-16 15:30
Verbal and Non-Verbal Communication
Verbal - conveying messages using words or vocal sounds. Non-Verbal - conveying messages that do not require the use of words or vocal sounds
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Paralinguistics
Vocal features that accompany speech
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Verbal Communication Study - Alrgyle Alkema and Gilmour; Aim
To see if tone of voice has any effect when interpreting a verbal message
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Alrgyle Alkema and Gilmour; Method
Different groups of participants listened to either a friendly or hostile message spoken in either a friendly or hostile tone of voice.
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Alrgyle Alkema and Gilmour; Results
Tone of voice had about five times the effect of the verbal message
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Alrgyle Alkema and Gilmour; Conclusion
Tone of voice is extremely important in how people interpret verbal messages.
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Eye Contact and Pupil Dilation
Eye Contact - when two people in conversation are looking at each others eyes at the same time. Pupil Dilation - when the pupils in the eyes expand to look large.
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Eye Contact Study - Argyle; Aim
To see how interrupting eye contact affects conversations
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Argyle; Method
Pair of participants were observed having a conversation. In half the conversations one participants wore dark glasses to prevent eye contact.
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Argyle; Results
When a participant wore dark glasses the conversation had more pauses and interruptions.
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Argyle; Conclusion
Eye contact is important in ensuring a smooth flow of conversation
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Pupil Dilation Study - Hess; Aim
To see the effect on pupil dilation on emotion.
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Hess; Method
Participants were shown two nearly identical pictures of the same girl and asked which one was more attractive. In one picture the girls pupils were dilated.
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Hess; Results
A majority of participants chose the girl was dilated pupils but they couldn't say why.
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Hess; Conclusion
Pupil Dilation has an unconscious but powerful effect on emotion
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Facial Expression Study - Sackeim; Aim
To look at the relationship between facial expressions and the hemispheres of the brain.
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Sackeim; Method
Pictures of peoples faces showing different emotions were cut in half and new pictures were created with each half face and its mirror image. New faces were shown to participants and they were asked which picture they preferred.
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Sackeim; Results
Most participants preferred the picture of the ;eft had face and its reflection as they believed the person looked 'warmer'.
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Sackeim; Conclusion
The left side of the face seems to express emotion much more than the right side.
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Body Language - Posture, Postural echo, closed posture and open posture
Postural echo - mirroring another persons body image. Closed Posture - positioning the arms so they are folded and crossing the legs. Open Posture - Positioning the arm so there are not folded and not crossing legs
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Postural Echo Study - McGinley; Aim
To see the effect os postural echo when having a conversation.
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McGinley; Method
A confederate approached individuals in a social setting and had conversations with them. In half the confederate echoed the posture but in the rest they didn't. After the participants were asked what they thought of the confederate.
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McGinley; Results
When postural echo was used people liked the confederate and thought they got on well but when it wasn't used the confederate wasn't liked as much and conversations felt awkward.
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McGinley; Conclusion
Postural echo gives an unconscious message of friendliness.
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Open and Closed Posture Study - McGingley, Lefevre and McGinley; Aim
To see the effect of open and closed posture when having a conversation.
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McGinley, Lefevre and McGinley; Method
A confederate approached individuals and had a conversation. In half open posture used and the rest closed posture. After individuals were asked what they thought of the confederate.
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McGinley, Lefevre and McGinley; Results
When showing open posture the confederate was seen as friendly but with closed posture they were seem as less friendly.
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McGinley, Lefevre and McGinley; Conclusion
The posture that someone adopts will make a different to how much they are liked.
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Gesture
Information is conveyed by either deliberate or unconscious movement of parts of the body
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Gesture Study - Lynn and Mynier; Aim
To see the effect of gestures used by waiters and waitresses on the tipping behaviour of customers.
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Lynn and Mynier; Method
Waiters wand waitresses were instructed to either stand up or squat down near customer
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Lynn and Mynier; Results
When they squatted down larger tips were received compared to when they stood up.
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Lynn and Mynier; Conclusion
The gesture of squatting down near a seated customer to take an order will have a positive effect on tipping behaviour.
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Touch
Information is conveyed by physical action between people
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Touch Study - Fisher, Rytting and Heslin; Aim
To see of the effect of touch on people's attitudes.
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Fisher, Rytting and Heslin; Method
Female students in library were handed books by the librarian who was a confederate. Half the students were touched and other half were not.
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Fisher, Rytting and Heslin; Results
Those touches had a more positive attitude towards the librarian than those not touched. The students were not aware they had been touched.
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Fisher, Rytting anf Heslin; Conclusion
Touch will have an unconscious and positive effect on attitudes.
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Sex Differences
Differences due to being either female or male: these could affect personal space.
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Sex Differences Study - Argyle and Dean; Aim
To see if sex differences affect personal space
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Argyle and Dean; Method
Participants were asked to have a conversation with another person who was a confederate. Sometimes the confederate was the same sex and other times different sex. Also the confederate sat at different distances.
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Argyle and Dean; Results
Participants tended to break eye contact with confederate of opposite sex at greater distanced apart than when the confederate was the same sex. They thought this was the point at which personal space was being invaded.
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Argyle and Dean; Conclusion
We prefer to have a greater amount of personal space between ourselves and those of the opposite sex during normal conversations.
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Individual Differences
Factors that make one person not the same as another person, such as personality or age.
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Individual Differences Study - Wiliis; Aim
To see if age has an effect on personal space.
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Willis; Method
Willis observed almost 800 individuals in different social settings.
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Willis; Results
Those he observed tended to stand close together to people their own age and further away from those of different ages.
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Willis; Conclusion
Age differences affects how close people to stand to one another
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Cultural Norms
The range of behaviours that members of a particular social group or society can be expected to show
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Cultural Norms Study - Summer; Aim
To see if there are cultural differences in the use of personal space.
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Summer; Method
Summer observed groups of white english people and Arab people in converstaion
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Summer; Results
The comfortable conversation distance for white English was more than Arab people
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Summer; Conclusion
The use of personal space in normal conversation varied with culture
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Status
A persons rank or position in society
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Status Study - Zahn; Aim
To see is status has an effect on personal space.
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Zahn; Method
Zahn observed people of equal status approaching each other to have a conversation. He also observed people of unequal status approaching each other.
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Zahn; Results
Zahn found those of a lower status did not approach people with a higher status with same degree of closeness as those of equal status.
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Zahn; Conclusion
The use of personal space varies with differences in status when approaching other people
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Other cards in this set

Card 2

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Paralinguistics

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Vocal features that accompany speech

Card 3

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Verbal Communication Study - Alrgyle Alkema and Gilmour; Aim

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Card 4

Front

Alrgyle Alkema and Gilmour; Method

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Card 5

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Alrgyle Alkema and Gilmour; Results

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