Psychology - Memory

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Define Short Term Memory
Short Term Memory is the limited capacity memory store.
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Define Long Term Memory
Long Term Memory is the permanent store.
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What is Coding, Capacity, Duration in STM/LTM?
LTM- Semantic, Unlimited, Lifetime. STM- Acoustic, 7 plus or minus 2, 18-30 seconds
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What was Baddeley Research?
Acoustic in STM and Semantic in LTM
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Evaluate Baddeley Research
Limited application due to artificial stimuli
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What was the mean span for digits and letters that Jacobs found out?
9.3 Digits and 7.3 Letters.
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Evaluation for Jacobs Research
Lacking Validity as there may be confounding variables.
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What did Miller suggest is the capacity of STM and how do we recall?
7 plus or minus 2 and we recall by chunking.
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Evaluate Miller Research
Not so many chunks overestimated the capacity. Cowan (2004) capacity only 4 not 7 or more.
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Peterson and Peterson Research
24 ppts given constant syllable to remember and 3 digit no. to count backwards from by 3 to avoid rehearsal. STM short duration.
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Evaluate Peterson and Peterson Research
Meaningless stimuli lacks external validity.
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Bahrick Research
Yearbooks - recognition of faces 90% after 15 years dropped to 70% after 48 years.
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Evaluate Bahrick Research
Higher external validity- real life meaningful memories used. However confounding variables not controlled ppts may have rehearsed memory of yearbook over the years.
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What is the Multi-Store Model?
Atkinson and Shiffin came up with a representation of memory with three stores.
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What are the three main stores of the Multi-Store Model?
Sensory Register, Short Term Memory, Long Term Memory
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What is the Sensory Register?
receives input from the environment- iconic, echoic, and other sensory stores.
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Coding, Capacity, and Duration of Sensory Register?
Coding - all types. Capacity- Large, Duration - Less than 1/2 a second.
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How do we move from the sensory register to Short Term Memory?
By paying attention.
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How is the Short Term Memory transferred to Long Term Memory?
By Prolonged Rehearsal.
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What is the Maintenance Rehearsal (Rehearsal Loop)?
This occurs when we repeat material to ourselves over and over again. We can keep information in our STM as long as we rehearse it if we rehearse it long enough it moves into LTM.
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How does Retrieval work?
When we want to retrieve the memory from LTM it has to be transferred back to STM.
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What is the response of STM after retrieval?
Remembering.
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Evaluate strengths of MSM
Supporting Research for LTM and STM being different. Baddeley Research- LTM- semantic, STM-acoustic, MSM two memory stores are separate and independent.
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Evaluate Strengths of MSM
Evidence suggest different areas of the brain are linked to different memory stores. Prefrontal cortex - STM (Beardsley) Hippocamus- LTM(squire et al)
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Evaluate Weakness of MSM
More than one type of LTM - Episodic, Semantic, Procedural. Model is oversimplified.
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Evaluate Weakness of MSM
Research that supports MSM uses artificial material not meaningful materials. e.g Baddeley Research.
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What are the types of LTM?
Episodic, Semantic, Procedural Memory.
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What is Episodic?
Events from our own lives which is time stamped, it includes several elements- people.places,objects. Conscious effort to recall these memories.
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What is Semantic?
Knowledge of the world, facts and meanings it is not time stamped it is continuously being added to.
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What is Procedural?
Action/skills which can be recalled without much effort or conscious awareness.
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Evaluate Different Types of LTM
Clive Wearing episodic memory impaired but Semantic and Procedural unaffected. Shows different memory stores one store can be damaged but others unaffected.
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Evaluate Different Types of LTM
Brain Scan Studies- Physical reality to different types of LTM. Semantic - Left Prefrontal Cortex. Episodic- Right Prefontal Cortex.
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Evaluate Different Types of LTM
Real Life Application- mild cognitive impairments affects episodic memory this knowledge helps us to target memories to help people with these difficulties. Specific treatments can be developed.
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What is the Working Memory Model?
Baddeley and Hitch designed the WMM for STM with four main components.
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What is the four main components of the Working Memory Model?
Central Executive, Phonological Loop, Visuo-spatial Sketchpad, Episodic Buffer
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What is the role of the Central Executive?
Co-ordinates the slave systems and allocates resources it has a very limited storage.
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What is the role of the Phonological Loop?
It deals with auditory information. It has two further components the Phonological store- stores words you hear (inner ear) and the Articulatory process- allows you to silently repeat words ( maintenance rehearsal) holds what you can say in 2 seconds
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What is the role of the Visuo-spatial Sketchpad?
It stores visual and spacial information temporarily it can hold three to four objects. 2 sub-sections Visual Cache- stores visual data. Inner Scribe- Records the spatial arrangement.
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What is the role of the Episodic Buffer?
Integrates processing of slave systems and records the order of events. Linked to LTM.
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Evalaute WMM (KF)
KF had poor auditory memory but good visual memory. Damaged Phonological Loop but Visuo-Spatial Sketchpad fine.
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Evaluate WMM (Dual task)
Difficult to do two visual task at the same time, but one visual and one verbal is OK. This suggest different components - Baddeley.
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Evaluate WMM (Central Executive)
The Central Executive is the most important part but least understood it has not yet fully been explained probably has different components.
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What are the two Forgetting theories?
Interference theory and Retrieval Failure theory.
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What is the Interference theory?
Two peices of information conflict- one memory disturbs the ability to recall another this results in forgetting or distorting one or both of the memories. This is more likely to happen if the memories are similar.
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Proactive Interference?
Previously learnt information interference with the new information you are trying to store. Example- Teacher has learnt so many names in the past she has problem remembering her new current class.
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Retroactive Interference?
Newly learnt information interferes with the previously learnt information. Example: A teachers learns so many new names of her current class and now she cant remember the names of her old class.
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Evaluation of Interference Theory (McGeoch and McDonald)
Supported by a wide range of lab studies - McGeoch and McDonald- learning two sets of lists of words, recall was worst for the first set if the second set of words was similar to the first. Suggest Interference is strongest when memories are similar.
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Evaluation of Interference Theory (Rugby Players)
Real Life setting - Baddeley and Hitch asked rugby players to recall the teams they had played against that season accuracy in recall was dependent on the games they had played in the meantime not how long ago. Applies to everyday situations.
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Evaluation of Interference Theory (Criticism)
Interference Theory is supported by lab studies which is more likely to create interference than in the real words so it is not a likely explanation for forgetting in everyday life.
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What is the Retrieval Failure Theory?
A form of forgetting it occurs when we don't have the necessary cues to access memory the memory is available but not accessible unless a suitable cue is provided.
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What is a cue?
A cue is a trigger of information that allows us to access a memory such cues may be meaningful or indirectly linked. Cues may be external (environmental context) or internal (mood or degree of drunkenness)
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What is context-dependent forgetting?
Godden and Baddeley ( deep sea divers) recall better when external contexts matched.
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What is state-dependent forgetting?
Carter and Cassaday ( anti-histamines) recall better when internal states matched.
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Evaluate Retrieval Failure Theory ( Support Evidence)
Wide range of support evidence ( Godden, Baddeley, Carter and Cassaday) Eysenck claims retrieval failure is most important reason for LTM forgetting.
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Evaluate Retrieval Failure Theory ( Context Effects)
Baddeley argues that context effects are actually not very strong especially in real life. Different context have to be VERY different .
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Evaluate Retrieval Failure Theory ( Recall vs Recognition)
Context effect may be related to the kind of memory being test. Godden and Baddeley replicated their underwater experiment but used recognition instead and there was no context-dependent effect performance was the same in all four conditions.
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What are the two factors that affect Eyewitness Testimony?
Misleading Information and Anxiety.
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What is misleading Information?
Incorrect information given to the eyewitness usually after the event it can take many forms such as leading questions and post-event discussions between co-witnesses or other people.
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What are leading questions?
A question which because of the way it is phrased suggest a certain answer.
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What is post-event discussion?
Occurs when there is more than one witness to an event. Witnesses may discuss what they have seen with co-witnesses or other people. This may influence the accuracy of each witnesses recall of the event.
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Loftus and Palmer Research
Estimate of Speed when verb changed from smashed,collided,bumped,hit,contacted. Estimate of speed was highest for smashed- 40.8 and lowest for contacted 31.8.
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Why do leading questions affect EWT?
Response Bias- no change to memory. Subsitution explanation supported by Loftus and palmer and report of presence of glass. More ppts were likely to say yes to boken glass when the verb smashed was used (16) compared to hit (7)
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Response Bias
The phrasing of a question influences the response given.
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Substitution
The phrasing used in questioning about an event actually changes a person's memory of that event.
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Study of Post Event Discussion (Gabbert et al)
71% of the ppts in the experimental group who has discussed what they has seen with other mistakenly recalled aspects of the event that they didn't see but picked up of from the discussion. 0 % of the control group reported info that they hadn' seen.
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Explain how NSI and ISI are at work?
NSI want social approval go along with what everyone is saying. ISI - they believe what they have heard to be right and they are wong. This influence ewt.
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Evaluation of EWT - Real life Application
Real life Applications police need to be careful how they phrase their questions. Improves the way legal systems work.
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Evaluation of EWT- Artifical task
Different from witnessing real life car accidents it lacks the stress emotions can influence memory.
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Evaluation of EWT- Demand Characteristics
Dont want to let researcher down may think they are being helpful by saying they saw something which they actually didnt.
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What is Anxiety?
It is a state of physical and emotional arousal. Emotional feelings involve worried thoughts and tension and physically increased heart rate and sweatiness. It affects accuracy and detail of EWT.
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Johnson and Scott Research - Procedure?
There were two condition low anxiety - pen with grease on it. High anxiety- broken glass heard and paper knife with blood.
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Findings of Johnson and Scott Research?
49% in the low anxiety picked out the correct man from a set of 50 photos compared to 33% in the high anxiety condition because the attention was to the weapon which is a source of anxiety.
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Can Anxiety have a positive effect on recall?
The fight or flight response increases alertness which improves memory and makes you more aware of cues.
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Procedure of John Yuille and Judith Cutshall?
Interveiwed 13 witnesses 4-5 months after a real life shooting took place in Canada. Accuracy of event was measured by the detail in the account and they also had to rate how stressed they were.
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What was the findings of John Yuille and Judith Cutshall?
ppts who experienced the highest level of stress was most accurate - 88% compared to 75% who experienced less stress.
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What is Yerkes dodson's law?
(inverted u for the graph) increasing levels of anxiety increases accuracy in EWT but there is an optimum level anymore stress after that accuracy decreases.
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Evaluate Anxiety as a factor for EWT. (weapons)
Weapon focus effect is due to unusualness rather than anxiety so it is not specifically about the effects of anxiety. (pickel) EWT accuracy poorer in unusual condition.
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Evaluate Anxiety as a factor for EWT. ( Field Studies)
Field studies have lack of control of extraneous variables. There is no control for what could have happened in the mean time for example post-event discussion or media reports.
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Evaluate Anxiety as a factor for EWT. (Ethical issues)
It is not right to put people in situation where they feel anxiety as this is psychological harm.
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What is cognitive interview?
Fisher and Geiselman proposed a method of improving EWT by using better techniques when interviewing to help people retrieve more accurate accounts.
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What are the four techniques?
Report Everything (trigger) Reinstate context,(context dependent forgetting) Reverse Order,(prevent dishonesty) Change perspective( disrupts effects of expectations and schema)
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What is the enhanced cognitive interview?
Fisher et al developed some additional elements of Cognitive Interview to focus on the social dynamics of the interaction. For example eye contact reducing EW anxiety, minimizing distraction and asking open-ended questions.
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Evaluate Cognitive Interview (time-consuming)
It takes a lot of time and requires special training so the proper version of it would not be used.
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Evaluate Cognitive Interview ( Some elements more valuable than others)
Milne and Bull (2002) found that each individual element was equally valuable also using a combination of report everything and context reinstatement produced better recall than any other condition. So, at least two should be used for improvement.
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Evaluate Cognitive Interview (Support for the effectiveness of the ECI)
Meta- analysis by Kohnken et al combined data from 50 studies the enhanced CI consistently provided more correct information than the standard interview. Practical benefits.
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Define Long Term Memory

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Long Term Memory is the permanent store.

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What is Coding, Capacity, Duration in STM/LTM?

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What was Baddeley Research?

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Evaluate Baddeley Research

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