Psychology - Memory

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  • Created on: 01-06-16 14:51
Encoding, Storage and Retrieval
Encoding - changing information so that it can be stored. Storage - holding information in the memory store system. Retrieval - recovering information from storage.
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Sensory Store, Short-term Store and Long-term Store
Sensory Store - holds information received from senses for a very short period of time. Short-term - holds approx. 7 chances of information for a limited amount of time. Long-term - holds a vast amount of information fro a long period of time.
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Multi-Store Explanation Study - Peterson and Peterson; Aim
To see if rehearsal is necessary to hold information in the short-term store.
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Peterson and Peterson; Method
Participants were given sets of 3 letters which they had to remember, but immediately had to count backwards in threes to prevent rehearsal. Participants then had to recall the letters.
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Peterson and Peterson; Results
Participants had forgotten virtually all the information after 18 seconds
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Peterson and Peterson; Conclusion
We cannot hold information in the short-term store unless we rehearse it
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Recency Effect and Primacy Effect
Recency Effect - Information received later is recalled better than earlier information. Primacy Effect - The first information received is recalled better than later information
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Reconstructive Memory
Altering our recollection of things sot hat they make more sense to us
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Reconstructive Memory Study - Bartlett; Aim
To see if people when given something unfamiliar to remember would alter the information
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Bartlett; Method
Participants read 'The War of the Ghosts'. Later they were asked to retell the story as accurately as possible. This retelling was continued throughout the weeks followed.
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Bartlett; Results
Participants found it difficult to remember parts concerned with spirits and changed other parts so it made sense to them. Each time they retold the story they changed it more.
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Bartlett; Conclusion
Our memory is influence by our own beliefs.
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Levels of processing
The depth at which information is thought about when trying to learn it.
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Structural, Phonetic and Semantic Processing
Structural - thinking about the physical appearance of words to be learnt. Phonetic - thinking about the sounds of words. Semantic - thinking about the meaning of words
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Levels of Processing Study - Craik and Lockhart; Aim
To see if the type of question asked will have an effect on the number of words recalled
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Craik and Lockhart; Method
Participants were presented with a list of words in which they had to answer yes or no. Some questions required structural, others phonetic and the rest semantic. They were then given a longer list and had to identify the words.
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Craik and Lockhart; Results
Participants identified 70% that required semantic, 35% phonetic and 15% structural
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Craik and Lockhart; Conclusion
The more deeply information is processed the more likely it is to be remembered.
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Interference
Things that we have learnt that make it difficult to recall other information we have learnt
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Retroactive Interference and Proactive Interference
Retroactive - When information we have learnt hinders our ability to recall information we have previously learnt. Proactive - when information previous learnt hinders our ability to recall new information.
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Interference Study - Underwood and Postman; Aim
To see if new learning interfere with previous learning
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Underwood and Postman; Method
Participants were split into two groups. Group A were asked to learn a list of words pairs and then asked to learn a second list. Group B were only asked to learn the first list. Both groups had to recall the first list.
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Underwood and Postman; Results
Groups B's recall was more accurate than Groups A's
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Underwood and Postman; Conclusion
New learning will cause people to recall previously learner information less accurately.
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Context
The general setting or environment in which activities happen.
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Context Study - Godden and Baddeley; Aim
To see if people who learn and are tested in the same environment will recall more information than those who learn and tested in different environments.
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Godden and Baddeley; Method
Participants were split into 4 group and given the same list of words to learn. Group 1 - learned and tested underwater, Group 2 - learned underwater and teuton on shore, Group 3 - learn and tested on shore, Group 4 - learn on shore and tested under.
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Godden and Baddeley; Results
Groups 1 and 3 recalled 40% more words than groups 2 and 4
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Godden and Baddeley; Conclusion
Recall of information will be better if it happen in the same context that learning takes place
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Brain damage and forgetting - Anterograde amnesia, Retrograde amnesia and Hippocampus
Anterograde - being unable to learn new information after suffering from brain damage. Retrograde - loss of memory fro events that happened before brain damage. Hippocampus - a brain structure that is crucial for memory
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Eyewitness testimonies - Leading questions
A question that hints a particular type of answer
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Leading questions study - Loftus and Palmer; Aim
To see if asking leading questions will affect the accuracy of recall
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Loftus and Palmer; Method
Participants were shown a film of car accidents. Some were asked 'How fast was the car going when it hit the other car?' and others were asked the same but 'smashed'
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Loftus and Palmer; Results
Those who heard the word 'smashed' gave a higher speed estimate
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Loftus and Palmer; Conclusion
Leading question will reduce the accuracy of recall.
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Unfamiliar Faces Study - Bruce and Young; Aim
To see if familiarity affects the accuracy of recall
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Bruce and Young; Method
Psychology lecturers were caught on security cameras at entrance of building. Participants had to identify faces seen on camera from a series of high-quality images
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Bruce and Young; Results
The lecturers students made more correct identifications than the other students and experienced police officers.
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Bruce and Young; Conclusion
Previous familiarity helps when identifying faces
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Other cards in this set

Card 2

Front

Sensory Store, Short-term Store and Long-term Store

Back

Sensory Store - holds information received from senses for a very short period of time. Short-term - holds approx. 7 chances of information for a limited amount of time. Long-term - holds a vast amount of information fro a long period of time.

Card 3

Front

Multi-Store Explanation Study - Peterson and Peterson; Aim

Back

Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4

Front

Peterson and Peterson; Method

Back

Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5

Front

Peterson and Peterson; Results

Back

Preview of the front of card 5
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