Psychology - Learning

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  • Created on: 02-06-16 14:50
Classical conditioning
A procedure during which an animal or person learns to associate a reflex response with a new stimulus
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Unconditioned Stimulus
The stimulus that produces a reflex response e.g. the food for the dog
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Unconditioned Response
The reflex response to an unconditioned stimulus e.g. Pavlov's dog's salivation
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Conditioned Stimulus
A new stimulus presented with the UCS e.g. the bell
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Conditioned Response
The response that is learnt; it now occurs when the CS is presented e.g. dogs salivation
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A conditioned response dies out.
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Spontaneous Recovery
A conditioned response that has disappeared suddenly appears again.
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The conditioned response is produced when a similar stimulus to the conditioned stimulus is presented.
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The conditioned response is only produced when a specific stimulus is presented.
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When dog heard food buckets it salivated which was a reflex response. Dog learnt to salivate to sound of bucket. When the dog was fed a bell was rang and that made to dog salivate.
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Pavlov continued
Started ringing the bell and not bringing any food which caused the dog to stop salivating when he heard the bell. After a short period Pavlov would ring the bell and the dog would salivate. Changing tone of the bell would make the dog still salivate
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Watson and Rayner; Aim
To see if the emotional response of fear could be conditioned in a human being.
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Watson and Rayner; Method
Albert was 11 months old and liked a white lab rat and had no fear of white fury objects. In the conditioning trials the rat was shown followed by a metal bar being hit behind him. This was done several times.
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Watson and Rayner; Results
After 7 times, when the rat was presented Albert screamed and tried to get away. Albert also screamed when he was shown anything white and fury.
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Watson and Rayner; Conclusion
Fear responses could be learnt and even very young children can learn in the way suggested by classical conditioning.
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Operant Conditioning
Learning due to the consequences of behaviour through positive reinforcement or negative reinforcement.
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Law of Effect
Behaviour followed by rewards are usually repeated: those that are punished are not usually repeated.
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Designed puzzle box which he placed cat in. Cat had to escape and inside box there was a loop of string attached to loop and when string pulled door would open. After 20 times cat escaped quickly.
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A stimulus that weakens behaviour because it is unpleasant and we try to avoid it.
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A consequence of behaviour that encourages or strengthens a behaviour.
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Positive Reinforcement
A reward or pleasant consequence that increases the likelihood that a behaviour or action will be repeated.
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Negative Reinforcement
When an unpleasant experience is removed after a behaviour or action has been made. This increases the likelihood of that behaviour or action being repeated
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Behaviour Shaping
Changing behaviour in small steps.
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Placed hungry rat in 'Skinner Box' and rat would produce actions e.g.sniffing. By accident it would press lever and food would drop. Positively reinforced as food produced. Negative reinforcement; electric shock on floor and pressing lever stopped it
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A persistant and irrational fear of an object activity or situation. The typical symptoms are intense feelings of fear and anxiety to avoid the object, activity or situation.
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A treatment for phobias that involves the immediate exposure of the feared object to the person until there is no fear response.
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Ethical Issues of Flooding
Person loses right to withdraw and it is a very stressful procedure.
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Systematic Desensitisation
A treatment for phobias in which the person is taught to relax and then gradually exposed to the feared object.
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Hierarchy of Fears
Series of feared events ranked from least to most frightening.
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Ethical Implications of Systematic Desensitisation
Can withdraw if the feel uncomfortable, no deception, considered ethical, less stressful, takes longer than flooding and costs more as more sessions are needed.
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Aversion Therapy
Treatment for addictions which makes the addict have an extremely negative reaction to the addictive substance. Emetics can be used to produce vomiting reflex.
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Evaluation of Aversion Therapy
Can be extremely unpleasant, ethical issues and not always successful.
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Token Economy Programmes - Primary Reinforcer and Secondary Reinforcer
Primary - a reward, such as food that the animal or person needs in order to survive. Secondary - a reward such as money or a token that the animal or person can exchange for a primary reinforcer. Can be used to reward socially acceptable behaviour.
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Evaluation of Token Economy Programme
Has improved behaviour of patients, some say it makes people focus on reward rather than wanting their behaviour to improve
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Other cards in this set

Card 2


Unconditioned Stimulus


The stimulus that produces a reflex response e.g. the food for the dog

Card 3


Unconditioned Response


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Card 4


Conditioned Stimulus


Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5


Conditioned Response


Preview of the front of card 5
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