Psychology - Learning

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define learning
relatively permanent change in the behaviour occurs, due to experience
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define classical conditioning
learnt by association
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define unconditioned stimulus (US)
thing that causes the natural response
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define unconditioned response (UR)
natural response to unconditioned stimulus (not been learnt)
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define conditioned stimulus (CS)
thing thats now associated with the new learnt response (after conditioning)
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define conditioned response (CR)
response associated to a certain stimuli (after conditioning)
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define extinction
learnt behaviour dies out because the reinforcers no longer present
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define spontaneous recovery
reoccurs after extinctions occurred
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define generalisation
response to particular stimulus is made to another stimuli
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define discrimination
only one stimulus, won't answer to anything else
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define operant conditioning
consequences of a behaviour determine weather that behaviour repeated or not
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define thorndike law of effect
behaviours strengthened or weakened depending on if it followed by favourable or less favourable consequences
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define positive reinforcement
something which follows on from a behaviour and increases the chance that its repeated
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define negative reinforcement
behaviour results in taking away of something bad
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define punishment
follows on from a behaviour, decreasing the chance that its repeated
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define behaviour shaping
building behaviour patterns up gradually
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define phobia
strong, irrational fear to something that poses little or no harm
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define systematic desensitisation
uses classical conditioning , pairs stimulus causing phobia with a sense of relaxation
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define flooding
forces the patient straight away with their phobia until they are relaxed
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define aversion therapy
uses classical conditioning, associates their addiction with a and response e.g.- alcohol
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define token economy
uses operant conditions, rewarding someone for doing something correctly e.g.- a criminal offender in jail behaves in positive ways gets given money or cigarettes
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ethical issues of systematic desensitisation and flooding
patients may suffer from psychological distress especially during flooding
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evaluation of flooding and systematic desensitisation
flooding= most successful treatment+quicker, cheaper ... systematic d= successful in treating specific phobias e.g.- an animal and is most suitable for children
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ethical issues of token economy
violates the rights of patients, patients too distressed to judge their own interests and if the person doesn't get rewarded could cause them distress
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evaluation of token economy
very successful treatment but relapse is common. Also patients become very dependant on the system making it difficult for them to leave the institution
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ethical issues of aversion therapy
very unpleasant+distressing, and patients often too distressed to judge their own interests
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evaluation of aversion therapy
relapse is common so not a good long term treatment
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Other cards in this set

Card 2


define classical conditioning


learnt by association

Card 3


define unconditioned stimulus (US)


Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4


define unconditioned response (UR)


Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5


define conditioned stimulus (CS)


Preview of the front of card 5
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