Psychology Key Terms

Closed Questions
Questions where there are fixed choices of responses e.g. yes/no. They generate quantitative data
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Co-variables
The variables investigated in a correlation
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Concurrent validity
Comparing a new test with another test of the same thing to see if they produce similar results. If they do then the new test has concurrent validity
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Confounding variable
An extraneous variable that varies systematically with the IV so we cannot be sure of the true source of the change to the DV
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Covert observation
Also known as an undisclosed observation as the participants do not know their behaviour is being observed
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Critical value
The value that a test statistic must reach in order for the hypothesis to be accepted
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Demand characteristics
Occur when participants try to make sense of the research situation they are in and try to guess the purpose of the research or try to present themselves in a good way
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Directional hypothesis
A one-tailed hypothesis that states the direction of the difference or relationship (e.g. boys are more helpful than girls).
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Dispersion measure
A dispersion measure shows how a set of data is spread out, examples are the range and the standard deviation
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Ecological validity
The extent to which the findings of a research study are able to be generalized to real-life settings
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External validity
Whether it is possible to generalise the results beyond the experimental setting
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Face validity
Simple way of assessing whether a test measures what it claims to measure which is concerned with face value – e.g. does an IQ test look like it tests intelligence.
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Inferential statistics
Inferential statistics are ways of analyzing data using statistical tests that allow the researcher to make conclusions about whether a hypothesis was supported by the results.
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Internal validity
In relation to experiments, whether the results were due to the manipulation of the IV rather than other factors such as extraneous variables or demand characteristics
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Nominal level data
Frequency count data that consists of the number of participants falling into categories. (e.g. 7 people passed their driving test first time, 6 didn’t).
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Non-directional hypothesis
A two-tailed hypothesis that does not predict the direction of the difference or relationship (e.g. girls and boys are different in terms of helpfulness).
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Order effects
Order effects can occur in a repeated measures design and refers to how the positioning of tasks influences the outcome e.g. practice effect or boredom effect on second task
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Ordinal level data
Data that is capable of being out into rank order (e.g. places in a beauty contest, or ratings for attractiveness).
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Pilot study
A small scale study conducted to ensure the method will work according to plan. If it doesn’t then amendments can be made.
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Primary data
Information that the researcher has collected him/herself for a specific purpose e.g. data from an experiment or observation
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Reliability
Whether something is consistent. In the case of a study, whether it is replicable
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Secondary data
Information that someone else has collected e.g. the work of other psychologists or government statistics
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Social desirability bias
Participants’ behaviour is distorted as they modify this in order to be seen in a positive light.
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Standard deviation
A measure of the average spread of scores around the mean. The greater the standard deviation the more spread out the scores are
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Standardised procedures
In every step of the research all the participants are treated in exactly the same way and so all have the same experience.
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Stratified sample
A sampling technique where groups of participants are selected in proportion to their frequency in the target population
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Systematic sample
A sampling technique where every nth person in a list of the target population is selected
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Type 1 error
Is a false positive. It is where you accept the alternative/experimental hypothesis when it is false
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Type 2 error
Is a false negative. It is where you accept the null hypothesis when it is false
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Validity
Whether something is true – measures what it sets out to measure
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Other cards in this set

Card 2

Front

The variables investigated in a correlation

Back

Co-variables

Card 3

Front

Comparing a new test with another test of the same thing to see if they produce similar results. If they do then the new test has concurrent validity

Back

Preview of the back of card 3

Card 4

Front

An extraneous variable that varies systematically with the IV so we cannot be sure of the true source of the change to the DV

Back

Preview of the back of card 4

Card 5

Front

Also known as an undisclosed observation as the participants do not know their behaviour is being observed

Back

Preview of the back of card 5
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