Psychology G544

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  • Created on: 15-06-15 13:58
Chi squared
independent measures design, nominal data
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Mann Whitney U
independent measures design, Ordinal or interval level data
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Sign Test
Repeated measures design, matched pairs design for nominal data
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Wilcoxon matched pairs
Matched pairs and repeated measures design, interval and ordinal
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Spearman's Rank
Correlation
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The Cognitive Approach
the main assumption of the cognitive approach is how we think is central in explaining how we behave and respond to different people and situations.
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The Cognitive Approach-preferred method
Lab experiment, self report
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The cognitive approach-studies
Loftus and Palmer, Beck, Yochelson and Samenow
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Loftus and Palmer 1st experiment
sample: 45 students shown 7 film clips of traffic accidents and asked to write an account of what they'd seen and answer specific questions, critical question asked about collision of vehicle words asked were smashed collided bumped hit contacted
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Loftus and Palmer 1st experiment findings
smashed: 40.8 collided: 39.3 bumped: 38.1 hit:34.0 contacted: 31.8
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Loftus and Palmer 2nd Experimet
sample: 150 students watched 1 minute clip with 4 second crash. 50 participants asked how fast they were going when the cars hit or smashed, a week later they came back and asked if they had seen broken glass
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Loftus and Palmer 2nd Experimet findings
yes- smashed:16 hit:7 control:6 no-smashed:34 hit:43 control:44
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Beck
aim: to understand cognitive distortion in depression method: clinical interviews participants 50 patients diagnosed with depression 16 men 34 women, independent design, interviews with reports of patients thoughts before the session
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Beck findings
certain themes in depressed patients did not appear in non depressed patients, e.g. low self esteem, self blame overwhelming responsibilities and desire to escape anxiety feeling inferior
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Yochelson and Samenow
Aims: to understand make up of a criminal, establish techniques to alter personality disorders,sample:255 males method:interviews
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Yochelson and Samenow Findings
criminals are restless, dissatisfied and irritable, continuously set themselves apart from others want to live life of excitement lack empathy
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Physiological Approach
The main assumption of the physiological approach is that all behaviour is determined by our physiological and biological aspects which effect our thought patterns and emotional responses
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Physiological approach-preferred method
Lab experiment
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Physiological Approach-Studies
Brunner, Gottesman and shields, Maguire
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Brunner
Aim: explain the behaviour of a large family in the Netherlands where men suffered mental retardation Sample: 5 affected males Method:analysis of urine samples
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Brunner Findings
disturbed monoamine metabolism associated with a deficit of the enzyme MAOA. point mutation identified in the x chromosome of gene responsible for MAOA production
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Gottesman and Shields
Aim: to review research on genetic transmission of schizophrenia Method: review of 3 adoption studies and 5 twin studies 711 participants comparing biological parents and siblings and adoptive parents and siblings concordance rates compared
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Gottesman and Shields Findings
increase incidence of schizophrenia in twins with biological parents. higher concordance rate in monozygotic than di zygotic twins not 100% concordance rate some environmental factors
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Maguire
Aim:changes that occur in organisation of brain from experience Sample:16 taxi drivers all described as healthy neurological profile MRI scans into 3D image of brain calculate amount of grey matter in hippocampus VBM measured density of grey matter
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Maguire Findings
posterior hippocampi significantly larger than those of control subjects and anterior hippocampal region was larger in control subjects, hippocampal volume correlated with the amount of timepositively right posterior and negative in right anterior
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Individual Differences
The main assumption of the Individual Differences Approach is that their are differences between the people in any group in terms of their personal qualities and they ways in which they respond to certain situations.
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Individual Differences-Preferred Method
Do not have a preferred method as they believe everyone is different adn the research method must be tailored to and individuals needs
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Individual Differences-Studies
Thigpen and Cleckley, Brunner, Mcgrath
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Thigpen and Cleckley
Aim: to provide and account of treatment of MPD Sample: 25 year old Eve method:casestudy, 100 hours of interviews EEG and observation eve black: irresponsibility desire for excitement given IQ and memory test hypnosis
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Thigpen and Cleckley Findings
IQ test results eve white:110 Eve black: 104 memory test Eve white: superior memory to eve black Eve black far healthier than Eve white Eve Black: regressive Eve White: repressive OCD traits
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Brunner
Aim: explain the behaviour of a large family in the Netherlands where men suffered mental retardation Sample: 5 affected males Method:analysis of urine samples
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Brunner Findings
disturbed monoamine metabolism associated with a deficit of the enzyme MAOA. point mutation identified in the x chromosome of gene responsible for MAOA production
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McGrath
Aim: To treat a girl with specific noise phobia Method: Case study Sample: 9 year old Lucy who had a fear of loud noises and average IQ
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McGrath Procedure
Lucy brought to session and constructed hierarchy of feared noises Lucy taught breathing and imagery to relax used fear thermometer to rate level of fear from 1-10, paired fear with relaxation then associated noise with feeling calm
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McGrath Findings
Firstly Lucy reluctant to let balloons be burst and cried when they were, by the end of fourth session Lucy was able to signal balloon burst 10m away by 10th session fear thermometer from 7/10 to 3/10 for balloons
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Developmental
The main assumption of the developmental approach is that how we change as we age in particular how we change cognitively and socailly within childhood effects our behaviour
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Developmental-Preferred method
Case study
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Developmental-Studies
Freud, Kohlberg, Farrington
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Freud
5 Year old Little Hans to prove oedipus complex during Phallic stage develops sexual love for his mother seeing father as rival developing fear that father will castrate him Case study method carried out by boys father and reported to freud
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Freud Findings
when 3 developed active interest in penis and of other people mother threatened to cut off widler phobia of horses Big giraffe was his father horse was his father
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Kohlberg
Aim: to find evidence to support progression of moral development Sample: 58 boys from chicago, Method: 2 hour interviews with 10 dilemmas some followed up at 3 year intervals up to age 30-36
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Kohlberg Findings
younger boys preformed at stage 1 an 2 older boys at stages 3 and 4 suggesting development through stages no support for stage 6
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Farrington
Aim: to document start duration and end of offending behaviour. Longitudinal survey and searches of criminal records Participants 411 boys aged 8-9 365 interview at age 48
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Farrington Findings
At age 48 of 404 individuals searched 161 had convictions offences peaked at 17 7% were defined as chronic offenders accounted for half of offences
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Social Approach
The main assumption of the socail approach is that we can only understand people in the context of their interactions and perceptions of others.
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Social Approach-preferred method
Field experiment
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Social Approach-Studies
asch, Millgram, Waxler morrison
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Asch
Aim: to investigate effects of conformity to a majority when task is unambiguous Method: Lab Procedure: naive participants asked questions to which several stooges give a clear wrong answer
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Asch Findings
individuals conformed in one out of three occasions 32% conformity until stooge disrupts this and conformity drops to 5% majority bigger than three makes little difference
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Behaviourist perspective
The main assumption of the Behaviourist perspective is that all behaviour is learnt through experience.
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Behaviourist perspective- preferred method
Lab experiment
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Behaviourist perspective-studies
Mcgrath, watson and Raynor, Bandura ross and ross, Bandura
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Psychodynamic Perspective
The main assumption of the psychodynamic perspective is that our behaviour is determined by subconscious thoughts and desires
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Psychodynamic perspective-preferred method
Case study
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Psychodynamic Perspective
Freud and Thigpen and cleckley
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Determinism
determinism states that all behaviours, mental acts and judgements are determined by factors out of our control
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Free Will
Free will presents the view that our behaviour and mental acts are a results of our individual choices and volition
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Determinism strengths
emphasis on cause and effect allowing us to change certain things. Determinism is the purpose and goal of science and objectivity. cause and effect relationships makes it more acceptable to society.
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Determinism Weaknesses
Does not allow for free will, People can not be held accountable as behaviour was out of their control, removed responsibility, Determinism can never fully explain behaviour as it is often reductionist
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Free Will strengths
People can be held accountable for their actions people more easily prosecuted, concious reflection of our behaviour allows us to achieve our goals and learn from our mistakes
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Free Will weaknesses
Reductionist, people could be held accountable for things they can not be blamed for miscarriag of justice
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Determinism Examples
physiological, behaviourist, psychodynamic soft determinism- developmental, social, cognitive and individual differences
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Reductionism
reductionism is the process of explaining complex psychological phenomena by reducing them to their component parts or smaller simplistic factors
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Holisms
Holistic view looks at a person as a whole or perhaps looks at a complex of factors which explain a particular behaviour
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Reductionism strengths
Breaks things down to its component parts allowing us to build them up again seen as a more scientifc and objective way cause and effect more applicable, easier to study one.
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Reductionism weaknesses
Isolate factors does not always give a valid view of behaviour, components may be difficult to isolate and so manipulate hard to study it detached from wider social context.
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Reductionism examples
physiological, behaviourist, social, psychodynamic, cognitive and developmental
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Holism examples
Individual differences
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Nature
the part of us that is genetically inherited
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Nurture
Refers to all our influences after birth, linking to environment and social context
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Nature strengths
Scientific and objective can determine genetic risk factors and prevent them biological predispositions
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Nature weaknesses
Reductionist
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Nurture strengths
Allows us to discover that our behaviours are due to our learning and environment to create early prevention programmes
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Nurture weakness
Reductionist
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Nature examples
physiological, psychodynamic
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Both nature and examples
Developmental, individual differences and cognitive
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Nurture examples
Behaviourist and social
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Situational
a situational explanation will look at a wider context of a persons behavioural factors including social group and physical environment
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Individual
An explanation for an event that looks at individual characteristics and their traits and beliefs as an explanation for their behaviour
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Situational strengths
early prevention programmes to prevent different social situations pens up new directions for further study into complex interraction
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Situational weakness
Reductionist, can be difficult to separate effects, hard to investigate lowering ecological validity.
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Individual strengths
evaluates free will
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individual weaknesses
reductionist removes effect of environment
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Situational examples
social, behaviourits
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both situational and individual examples
developmental and psychodynamic
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individual examples
physiological, individual differences and cognitive
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psychology as a science
It is a research based subject with investigation at its core, psychologists use scientific methods and carries out genuine experimentation through the manipulation and variables and controls it enforces, hypothesis empirically tested
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Psychology is not a science
psychologies subject matter is humans can not be tested like chemistry and physics lack of objectivity environment effects it, much of what psychology investigates is emotion not genuine scientific and empirical data, no single theory or frame work
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psychology as a science examples
physiological, behaviourist developmental
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both is a science and isnt a science examples
cognitive
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psychology is not a science
psychodynamic, individual differences, social
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Millgram
Aim: to investigate what level of obedience would be shown when participants were ordered by an authority figure 40 males between 20 and 50 recruited by newspaper participant turned up to lab
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Card 2

Front

independent measures design, Ordinal or interval level data

Back

Mann Whitney U

Card 3

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Repeated measures design, matched pairs design for nominal data

Back

Preview of the back of card 3

Card 4

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Matched pairs and repeated measures design, interval and ordinal

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Card 5

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Correlation

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Preview of the back of card 5
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