Psychology - Further Research Methods

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  • Created by: alexhross
  • Created on: 05-06-16 15:16
Survey
A method used for collecting information from a large number of people by asking them questions, either using a questionnaire or in an interview.
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Questionnaire
A set of standard questions about a topic that is given to all participants in the survey.
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Closed Question
A question where the possible responses are fixed, often as 'yes' or 'no' options.
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Advantages of Closed Questions
Provide researcher with data that is easy to put together and can quickly work out percentages.
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Disadvantages of Closed Questions
Little detail given and respondents cannot explain their answers. Hard to tell difference between 'sometimes' and 'often'.
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Open Questions
A question where the person answering can give any response they like.
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Advantages of Open Questions
Provides lots of detail and respondents can explain their answers.
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Disadvantages of Open Questions
Hard to group together individual responses.
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Unambiguous
Something that has only one meaning.
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Advantages of Questionnaires
Great deal of data can be collected quickly. Useful to have open and closed questions. They are ethical as people know what the questions are asking
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Disadvantages of Questionnaires
No way of checking the answers are true so results could be misleading.
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Interview
A method in which a researcher collects data by asking questions directly.
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Structured Interview
An interview in which all the questions are pre-set, given a fixed order and every interviewee is asked same questions.
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Unstructured Interview
An interview in which only the first question is set and all other questions are determined by answers of the interviewee
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Advantages of Interviews
Produce large amounts of data. Data from structured interviews can be collect and analysed easily and data from unstructured are detailed and have ecological validity.
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Disadvantages of Interviews
Researcher cannot be sure the interviewee is telling the truth so data may not be accurate. Structured interviews can lack detail and may be frustrating if interviewer wants to ask another question. Data from unstructured may be difficult to analyse.
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Observational Method
Researcher decided to watch behaviour as people produce it .
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Natural Observation
Watching the behaviour of people who are in their usual environment.
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Observation Study
A method of collecting information about behaviour by watching and recording people's actions. Might act ecological validity as people being observed know study is taking place.
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Categories of Behaviour
The separate actions that are recorded as examples of the target behaviour.
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Advantages of Observational Method
Usually high in ecological validity. Record real behaviour.
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Disadvantages of Observation Method
They do not know why people's behaviour occurred. An observer may make a mistake. People being observed may be aware and change their behaviour. Ethical issues. Can be difficult and time consuming.
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Inter-Observer Reliability
When this is high, the records made by more than one observer in a study are considered to be accurate because they match or are very similar to each other.
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Case Study
An in-depth investigation of an individual, a small group or organisation.
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Advantages of Case Studies
Provide detailed information about individuals. Record behaviour over time so changes in behaviour can be seen. Makes theories more accurate.
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Disadvantages of Case Studies
Data can be subjective as memories individual may have may not be accurate or reliable. Cannot be applied to anyone else. Ethical issues of confidentiality and right to withdraw.
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Relationship
A connection between two or more variables.
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Variables
A factor that can change.
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Correlation
A technique used by researchers to establish the strength of a relationship between two variables.
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Scatter Graph
A graph for representing correlations.
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Advantages of Correlations
Allows researcher to see if two variables are connected. Can be used when it would be impossible or unethical to carry out an experiment.
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Limitations of Correlations
Do not indicate which of the two variables caused the relationship to occur. A large amount of data needed to see a pattern
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Other cards in this set

Card 2

Front

Questionnaire

Back

A set of standard questions about a topic that is given to all participants in the survey.

Card 3

Front

Closed Question

Back

Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4

Front

Advantages of Closed Questions

Back

Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5

Front

Disadvantages of Closed Questions

Back

Preview of the front of card 5
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