1. Which of these statements does NOT describe Poverty and disadvantaged neighbourhoods as a reason for turning to crime
- babies have a biological need for a monotrophic bond with their primary caregiver. This bond is needed from the age of 7 months up to aprox 3 years. If it is disrupted by the child experiencing maternal deprivation then can manifest into crime.
- people living in these neighbourhoods are only likely to turn to crime if they spend their time in these neighbourhoods AND, as an individual, have weak morality and low self-control, both of which can arisen from how they were brought up
- Neighbourhoods that have weak social cohesion and poor informal social control are more crimogenic. Disadvantaged neighbourhoods display these characteristics to a great extent than others but it is not poverty itself that is the problem.
- How engaged a child is with school also effects their levels of morality and self-control
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2. Which of these statements does NOT describe Broeder (1959) study on evidence being ruled inadmissable to a jury?
- When the defence used story order and prosecution used witness order this dropped to 31% guilty verdict.
- If the driver said he was insured and the judge ruled this inadmissable and told the jury to disregard this, the average award to V was increased to $46,000. This suggests that jurors attach added significance to banned info.
- When the driver had no insurance, jurors awarded the V average of $33,000, when he said he did have insurance this increased to an average of $37,000. This suggests that jurors are prepared to make larger awards to V's when an insurance company pay.
3. Which of these in NOT a finding from Frowd's study (2005b) on recognising and recreating while using efit for making a case
- E-fit was the best group at the line-up task- 60% correct. Generally, recognition was poor, with on average about 3% correct naming and 40% correct matching of photos and composites.
- There was no significant difference found in the questionnaires from each group.
- The results found that the sketch artist group were significantly better at both naming the celebrity and sorting (i.e. matching to composite to the target photo)
4. which statement regarding Findings of Bowlby's (1944) study on disrupted families as a reason for turning to crime s NOT correct
- 2 participants in the control group experienced separation with mother for longer than 6 months in the first 5 years.
- 32% of juvenile thieves showed affectionless psychopathy according to Bowlby
- individual variables- weak morality+ low self-control both predicted offending
- over 50% of juvenile thieves were separated with mother for longer than 6 months in the first 5 years.
- 0 of the control group showed affectionless psychopathy according to Bowlby
5. Which of these is NOT one of the methods used in Wikstroem's (2002) study on Poverty and disadvantaged neighbourhoods as a reason for turning to crime
- Psychometric exercises
- Peterborough Community survey
- Space-time budget
- a social worker interviewed a parent to get details of early life of the child