Psychology - Forensic Psychology

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1. Which of these is NOT pre-interrogation technique used in The Reid Technique in Inbau et al (1986) study on interrogation techniques while interviewing suspects?

  • Make sure suspect is too hot ie turn up air con in order to make more unconfortable
  • Setting up the environment (uncomfortable chair,small room)
  • Establish baseline (see how suspect is when calm and try to build rapport)
  • Determine what causes stress (try invading personal space)
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2. Which of these statements does NOT describe how E-Fit is used to help witnesses recognise and recreate face for making a case

  • Memory involves three stages: acquisition, storage, and retrieval. To help witnesses retireve/ recall their memory of a face (e.g of a suspect), various methods have been used by the police down the years.
  • There is a large body of evidence that the presence of a weapon during a crime can lead witnesses to follow on this so much that their recall of the details is adversely effect. this is known as the "weapon focus" effect
  • Memory involves three stages: acquisition, storage, and retrieval. To help witnesses retireve/ recall their memory of a face (e.g of a suspect), various methods have been used by the police down the years.
  • The spatial configuration and tonal appearance of the chosen features can then be adjusted on the E-Fit system.
  • These methods range from the use of sketch artists to identikit, photofit and more recently computer based programmes such as e-fit (Electronic Facial Identification Technique)
  • E-fit has been installed in 90% of British police forces. It involves individual components of a face being selected from a database containing over 20,000 facial features.

3. Which of these statements is NOT a description of the findings in Kohlberg's (1963) study on moral development as reason for turning to crime?

  • Stages of moral development were consistent across cultures
  • Group 1 reported a score of 24 on the Self-reported Deliquency checklist whereas Group 2 scored 4
  • The older boys tended to in Level 2 stages 3 and 4
  • The younger boys tended to perform at stage 1 and 2 in level one

4. Which of these statement describes Coerced internalised false confessions seen in Kassin and Wrightsman (1985) study on false confessions while interviewing suspects

  • Confessed because they come to believe they have committed the crime, this is based on "memory distrust syndrome" where they begin to doubt own memories. Typically occur in vulnerable suspects.
  • There is no police pressure and in which individuals voluntarily go to the police to confess. May be due to mental illness or desire to protect someone.
  • ndividual confessed because they see it as more desirable than the alternative of being persistently or violently questioned. Knows they havent committed the crime.

5. Which of these statements is incorrect about the top down approach to creating a profile?

  • Mental maps- What you use to find your way around your local area, it is influenced by the way you travel ie car, cycle etc. People in the same area can have different mental maps.
  • Began in 1978 in the Behavioural Support Unit at the FBI Academy in Quantico, Virgina. Led by Special Agents- Hazelwood, Douglas and Ressler.
  • Series of interviews commenced with 36 convicted murders (most with more than one victim) then with 41 serial rapists in order to make classifications.
  • Ressler made a distinction between two types of murder; organised and disorganised

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