Psychology - Depression

Types of depression
DSM- Categories of Depression
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Major Depressive disorder
Severe but short term
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Persistent Depressive Disorder
long term, recurring depression, sustained major depression
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Disruptive mood dysregulation depression
Childhood temper tantrums
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Premenstrual Dysphoric disorder
disruption to mood prior to menstruation
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Activity Levels
reduced levels of energy. Lethargic, withdraw from work, education and social life. Psychomotor agitation- struggle to relax, opposite effect
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Disruption to sleep and eating behaviour
reduced sleep (insomnia), increased need for sleep (hypersomnia) Eating behaviour increase or decrease.
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Aggression + self harm
verbally, physically aggressive, effects aspect of life. Towards others of self E.g self- harm
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Lowered Mood
feel worthless, empty, deeper than most peoples lowered mood
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Extreme anger at self or others
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Lowered self-esteem
experience of how much we like ourselves, hate themselves
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Poor concentration
unable to stick to a task, hard to make decisions, interfere with work
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Attending to + Dwelling on negative
Pay attention to negative aspects of a situation, recall unhappy events
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Absolutist Thinking
Black and white thinking, situation is unfortunate they see it as an absolute disaster
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Becks cognitive theory of depression
3 Parts to cognitive vulnerability
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Faulty Information Processing
tend to negative aspects of a situation, ignore positives, blow small problems out of proportion 'Black and white'
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Negative self-schemas
'schema' package of ideas, information developed through experience. Mental frame work for interpretation of sensory information. Self-schemas- information about ourselves. NSS- interpret all info about selves negatively
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The Negative Triad
3 Types of negative thinking that contribute to becoming depressed
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1) Negative View of the world
' the world is a cold hard place' create impression theres no hope anywhere
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2) Negative view of future
reduce any hopefulness and enhance depression
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3) Negative View of Self
confirm existing emotion of low self-esteem, enhance depression
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Evaluation: Good supporting evidence
evidence suggests depression is associated with faulty information processing, negative self-schema and cognitive triad
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Grazioli + Terry (2000)
65 Pregnant women, test for cognitive vulnerability and depression before and after birth. Found: those judges to have high cognitive vulnerability more likely to suffer post-natal depression
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Clark + Beck (1999)
Reviewed research on this topic. support for all cognitive vulnerability facts. Cognitions can be seen before depression develops.Supports Beck Theory of cognition causing depression
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Practical application in CBT
Forms basis of CBT, all cognitive aspects can be identified + challenged in CBT. Components of negative triad. Therapist can challenge them, encourage patient to test whether they are true. Strength as it translate into a successful therapy
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Doesn't explain all aspects of depression
explains basic symptoms of depression. But depressions complex. E.g Deeply angry patients Beck doesn't explain this. Some suffer hallucination + Beliefs e.g Cotard syndrome believe they are zombies (Jarrett) can't explain this
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Ellis' ABC Model
Good mental health is result of rational thinking, think in ways which allows people to be happy and free of pain.
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A- Activating Event
Situation which irrational thoughts are triggered by external events. Get depressed when experience negative events- trigger irrational beliefs e.g failing test, end of a relationship
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B- Beliefs
Range of irrational beliefs. 'Musturbation' - Must always succeed. ' I-Cant-Stand-It-Itis' - Believe its a major disaster when something doesn't go smoothly. 'Utopianism' Belief that life is always meant be fair
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C- Consequence
event triggered belief then emotional and behaviour consequence e.g believe must always succeed, then fail, triggers depression
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Evaluation: A Partial explanation
Reactive depression when depression followed an activating event. Different to depression which arises without an obvious cause. Ellis' explanation only applies to certain kinds of depression E.g event related not chemical imbalance
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Practical application in CBT
Led to successful therapy, by challenging irrational negative belief a person can reduce depression. Supported by Lipsky et al, Supports basic theory suggest irrational beliefs have role in depression
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Doesn't explain all aspects of depression
Doesn't explain anger associated with depression and fact some patients suffer hallucinations and delusion.
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Cognitive Approach to treating depression
CBT Cognitive Behavioural Therapy
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Most common treatment, assessment which patients and therapist work together to clarify patients problems. Identify goals for therapy, make plan to achieve. Identify where rational thoughts come from. work to change negative thoughts.
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CBT: Becks Cognitive Therapy
Identify automatic thoughts about self, world and future- Negative triad
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Thoughts challenged
Central component of therapy, help patients test realist of negative beliefs. Set homework record when enjoyed something or people where nice to them. Therapist uses evidence to show patients theirs statements are incorrect
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CBT: Ellis' Rational emotive behaviour therapy (REBT)
Extend ABC model- ABCDE D- Dispuse E- effect. Technique is to identify and dispute irrationals thoughts. Challenge irrational belief, break link between negative live event + depression
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Argument hallmark of REBT
Different methods of disputing
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Empirical argument
disputing if there is actually evidence to support negative belief
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Logical argument
Disputing whether negative thought logically follow from the facts
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Behavioural activation
encourage depressed patients to become more active, engage in enjoyable activities. Provide more evidence for irrational nature of beliefs.
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Evaluation: Effective
Maron (2007)- compared effects of CBT with antidepressant drugs and combination of the 2 in 327 adolescents. 36 weeks later- 81% CBT group, 81% Anti-depressnt group 86% of CBT + Anti depressant group- significant improved. CBT just as effective.
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CBT just as effective as medication. Good case of making CBT first choice of treatment in NHS
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CBT may not work for the most severe cases
Depression so sever they can't motivate themselves to engage in CBT (lack concentration). Treat with medication, start CBT when more alert + motivated. Limitation CBT can't be sole treatment always
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Success due to therapist Patients relationship
Rozenzweig (1936)- differences between different methods of psychotherapy e.g CBT + SD may be small. Its the quality of therapist patient relationship which determines success than particular technique.
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Lubersky (2002)
Comparative reviews, small differences suggest having someone to talk to and listens is what matters
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Other cards in this set

Card 2


Severe but short term


Major Depressive disorder

Card 3


long term, recurring depression, sustained major depression


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Card 4


Childhood temper tantrums


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Card 5


disruption to mood prior to menstruation


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