Psychology - CORE STUDIES - SOCIAL AREA

MILGRAM - aim
what extent will people obey unjust orders from a person in authority
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MILGRAM - pps, design, sample
40 men, self select and paid, lab (no IV?), independant measures
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MILGRAM - procedure
pp was teacher; asked word pairs, shock if wrong answer, 15-450V, victim gave predetermined responses and acted; verbal prods to continue, interviews and met victim
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MILGRAM - results
65% went to 450V, stress/anxiety obvious
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MILGRAM - conclusions
when under authority loose feelings of morality and are blindly obedient
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MILGRAM - replicability, data, validity
controlled and standardised = replicable; both data types; low ecological val - obedience in war is very different
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MILGRAM - ethics -
not fully informed, stress (3 seizures), right to withdraw was hard, were debriefed and worst were visited by psychiatrist but milgram should have stopped
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MILGRAM - sample, ethnocentrism, applications
androcentric and want money and USA; ethos of time was obey due to mccarthyism; helps us to be aware of blind obedience, gives evidence towards war crimes being just orders
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BOCCHIARO - aim
investigate obedience, disobedience and whistleblowing and how affected by personality
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BOCCHIARO - pps and beforehand
8 pilot studies, 138 predicted results; 149 pps mean age 20.8, paid, self selected, lab (noIV?)
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BOCCHIARO - procedure
told sensory deprivation test was waiting ethics approval, pps had panicked; write a statement convincing others to take part; obedience = do this, disobedience = not, whistleblowing = write ethics form; personality tests and debriefed and consent
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BOCCHIARO - results
obedience wildly underestimated, whistleblowing overestimated; religious slightly more likely to whistleblow
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BOCCHIARO - conclusions
people very obedient, w.b uncommon, we see ourselves as better
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BOCCHIARO - replicability, data, validity
controlled and standardised = replicable; both data; ecological val but in real life would have to whistleblow employer who pays you
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BOCCHIARO - sample, ethics
large sample but biased by age/background/want money; confidential and gave consent twice, debriefed but may leave feeling ashamed
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BOCCHIARO - application
wb isnt as common as it should be
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MILGRAM VS BOCCHIARO - pps, ethics, replicability
both paid volunteers, both standardised and controlled, both used deception
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MILGRAM VS BOCCHIARO - e val
both have low ecological validity
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MILGRAM VS BOCCHIARO - disobedience
hard to confront experimenter VS easy to just fill in form
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MILGRAM VS BOCCHIARO - debates
both determinist - behaviour determined by situation as predictions were so innacurate; both individual - personality traits enabled some to disobey and resist power of situation
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Card 2

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MILGRAM - pps, design, sample

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40 men, self select and paid, lab (no IV?), independant measures

Card 3

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MILGRAM - procedure

Back

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Card 4

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MILGRAM - results

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Card 5

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MILGRAM - conclusions

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