Psychology Core Studies

What are the characteristics of the pps in Milgram's study?
40 males between 20-50, from New Haven, obtained through ads and mailing, paid $4.50
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How many pps were in Moray's experiments 2 and 3?
12 in experiment 2, 28 in experiment 3
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What are the key findings from Moray's research?
Exp 1: mean 1.9 words recognised from rejected, 4.9 from shadowed, Exp 2: affective cue heard 20/39 times, non-affective cue heard 4/36 times
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How many pps were in Loftus and Palmers experiments?
45 students in exp 1, 150 in exp 2
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What were the mean speed estimates in the smashed and contacted conditions?
smashed= 40.8 mph, contacted= 31.8 mph
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What were the results from Loftus and Palmers experiment 2?
16 pps from the smashed condition saw broken glass compared to 7 from the hit condition and 6 from the control condition
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What were the findings from Gould's study?
Mental ages: White Americans= 13, Russians= 11.34, Black Americans= 10.41
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What was the neurological finding from Blakemoore and Coopers experiment?
abnormal distribution of neurones of preferred orientation, cells that began with preferred vertical orientation changed to horizontal preference when their environment was entirely horizontal
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What are the characteristics of the pps in Lee's study?
Chinese: 120 children, 40 of each age, equal gender split, Canadian: 108 children, 58 boys, 50 girls
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What was the key finding of Lee's research?
Pro-social/lie-telling condition: rating from Chinese children got more positive as they aged- at 11 years old Chinese children rated it +0.98, Canadian children rated it -1.00
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What are the characteristics of the pps in Baron-Cohen's study?
16 pps with high functioning autism or Asperger's Syndrome (13M 3F, mean age 28.6), 10 pps with Tourette's Syndrome, 50 'normal' pps
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What were the results from Baron-Cohen's eyes task?
Mean scores: 16.3/25 for autistic pps, 20.3 for 'normal' pps, 20.4 for pps with Tourettes. Within 'normal' population females performed significantly better (21.8 compared to 18.8)
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What is the sample in Hancock?
52 murderers in Canadian prison, 14 psychopaths, 38 non-psychopaths
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What are the key findings from Hancock's study?
Psychopaths used more subordinating conjunctions (1.82 v 1.54), 33% more disfluences, more words connecting to basic psychological needs, more language in past tense
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What is the sample in Chaney?
32 children from Australia, aged between 1 and a half and 6, 22 boys, 10 girls
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What are the key findings from Chaney's study?
used day before: standard- 59%, funhaler- 81%, always successful: s- 10%, f-73%, child attitude of pleasure: s- 10%, f- 68%
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How many trials did Piliavin run?
103 trails, 38 drunk, 65 cane (confederate collapsed after 70 secs)
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What are the key findings from Piliavin's study?
Cane: spontaneous help 62/65 trials, median latency of 5 seconds, drunk: 19/38, 109 secs, received more help from own race. 90% of first helpers were male
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What is the sample in Bocchiaro?
149 pps from VU University in Amsterdam (mean age- 20.8), 92 undergrads in 8 pilot studies
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What are the key findings from Bocchiaro's study?
Predicted: 18.8% would obey (3.6% for themselves), actual: 76.5% obeyed, 14.1% disobeyed, 9.4% whistleblowers
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What are the stages in Kohlberg's theory of moral development?
Level one= pre-conventional: stage 1- obedience and punishment, s2- self-interest. Level 2=conventional: s3- conformity to expectations/rules, s4- authority/social order. Level 3= post-conventional: s5- social contract, s6- universal ethical principl
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What is the sample in Kohlberg?
75 American boys started at 10-16 through to 22-28, included data from Taiwan and Malaysia
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What evidence did Kohlberg give for the stages in his study?
1: confused value of human life with property she owned, 2: value of woman's life rests on her value to her husband, 3: based on husbands empathy and love for his wife
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What evidence did Kohlberg give for the stages in his study? cont
4: life is sacred, dependent on respect for God/God's authority (not autonomous human value), 5: universal value of life in context of relativity, 6: universal and absolute value
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What are the key findings of Casey's study?
low delayers had lower activity in inferior frontal gyrus and higher activity in ventral striatum, made more errors on hot task (15.7% compared to 11.2%)
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What is the sample in Maguire's study?
16 right handed London taxi drivers, 50 right handed controls aged between 32-62
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What are the key findings in Maguire's study?
positive correlation between volume of posterior hippocampus and time spent as taxi driver, bilateral decrease in anterior hippocampus, no difference in overall volume
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What is the sample in Bandura's study?
72 children, mean age 4 years 4 months, equal gender split (8 groups of 6 children and control group of 34)
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What are the key findings of Bandura's study?
Boys showed 38.2 imitative physical acts, girls showed 12.7, girls in non-aggressive condition showed 0.5 mallet acts compared to 18 in aggressive condition and 13.1 in control (presence of non-aggressive model reduces 'normal' amount of aggression)
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What is the sample in Simons and Chabris' study?19
228 pps originally but 36 pps were omitted leaving data from 192, undergrad students, volunteered/given candy/payment
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What are the key findings from Simons and Chabris' study?
overall level of inattentional blindness= 46% transparent condition- 42% noticed opaque condition- 67% noticed
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What was the conclusion from Simons and Chabris' study?
inattentional blindness occurs in sustained dynamic events, objects can pass through our central field of vision and still not be seen if they are not specifically attended to, there is no conscious perception without attention
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What is the sample in Grant's study?
8 psychology students recruited 5 acquaintances, 39 pps (one omitted), 17 F, 23 M
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What are the key findings from Grant?
Recognition task: NN and ** (matching)= 14.3/16, NS and SN (mismatching)= 12.7/16. Recall: **= 6.7/10, SN= 4.6/10
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What is the sample in Levine's study?
23 cities with populations over 23,000, omitted pps who were elderly, young, had disability or were carrying heavy packages
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What are the key findings from Levine's study?
Helping behaviour ranged from 93% (Rio) to 40% (Kuala Lumpar), simpatia countries= 82.87%, non-simpatia= 65.87%, helping behaviour inversely related to economic productivity
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What is the behaviourist perspective?
Investigates behaviours which can be observed and measured rather than internal events, the major influence is learning from the environment, investigates the process of learning through classical and operant conditioning and social learning theory
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What are strengths and weakness of the behaviourist perspective?
Strengths: role of nurture, useful (including in clinical settings), lab experiments giving scientific credibility. Weaknesses: ignores nature, can be difficult to apply, often lacks EV
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What is the psychodynamic perspective?
conscious mind, preconscious (retrieving stored memories), unconscious (hidden from awareness).Two instinctual drives- Eros (life instinct), Thanatos (death instinct). Within the unconscious is the id, ego and superego
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What are strengths and weakness of the psychodynamic perspective?
Strengths: development of mental disorders, treatment, made case study method popular. Weaknesses: unscientific, validity questionable due to case studies
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What are the key assumptions of the social area?
Behaviour is influenced by the actual, imagined or implied presence of others, to understand behaviour we need to understand the social context in which it occurs, often uses field experiments
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What are strengths and weakness of the social area?
Strengths: improve understanding, useful, brings psych to wider audience, often high in EV. Weaknesses: may not be true for all time/places, socially sensitive, ethical issues, can become blurred with cognitive
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What are the key assumptions of the cognitive area?
Understanding how information is processed. Assumes the brain is like a computer- input, processing, response. Covers: memory, perception, language, attention etc
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What are strengths and weakness of the cognitive area?
Strengths: improve understanding, useful (e.g police interview), favours scientific method, easier to test for reliability. Weaknesses: lack EV, can't study cognitive processes directly, demand characteristics
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What are the key assumptions of the developmental area?
Understanding that behaviour develops throughout life, often looks at development in children, no single explanation of behaviour, sets to answer the question of how much behaviour is innate how much is learned
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What are strengths and weakness of the developmental area?
Strengths: useful (e.g. education), attempts to answer nature/nurture, variety of qualitative and quantitative, longitudinal studies. Weaknesses: ethical issues, using children as pps, may be constrained by time/culture, sample often small
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What are the key assumptions of the biological area?
Assumes behaviour can be explained in terms of biology, studies the brain and nervous system to explain behaviour, studied in scientific manner
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What are strengths and weakness of the biological area?
Strengths: understanding of physiognomy of the brain, favours scientific method often uses objective morals, easier to test for reliability. Weaknesses: limitations to how data is gathered and what precisely is happening, too simplistic
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What are the key assumptions of the individual differences area?
Investigates how and why people differ, focuses on 'abnormal psychology' , includes: mental disorders, intelligence, psychometric testing
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What are strengths and weakness of the individual differences area?
Strengths: wide range of human behaviours, social benefit, informs freewill/determinism debate. Weaknesses: more disagreement within area, socially sensitive, tools for measuring differences not always valid
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Card 2

Front

How many pps were in Moray's experiments 2 and 3?

Back

12 in experiment 2, 28 in experiment 3

Card 3

Front

What are the key findings from Moray's research?

Back

Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4

Front

How many pps were in Loftus and Palmers experiments?

Back

Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5

Front

What were the mean speed estimates in the smashed and contacted conditions?

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Preview of the front of card 5
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