psychology contemporary studies

what is the contemporary study for the biological approach?
Li et al
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what was the aim of Li et als study?
to see the relationship between chronic heroin users brain and difference in brain areas - especially interested in the cingulate cortex in the middle of the brain.
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what did the sample consist of?
14 previously heroin-addicted males matched with 15 males as a control group.
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what scanner was used to scan their brains?
fMRI
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how long did they have to stare at a target and do nothing else for?
5 minutes
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what was the activity to investigate the brain activity?
48 pictures were shown, 24 being heroin-related and 24 neutral pictures, for two seconds each with an interval between
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what were the results from the scans?
activity in the posterior cingulate cortex was significantly increased when heroin users were exposed to drug-related cues.
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was the study generalisable?
no, as it was a small sample of males of one culture
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was using a brain scan valid?
yes, although other brain areas would have been active so could have interrupted the scan, the difference between the males would be from the affect of heroin use
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was the study applicable?
yes as it helps to measure the severity of the affect of drug addiction and brain damage
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what was the contemporary study for the cognitive approach?
sebastian & hernandes-gil
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what was the aim of their study?
they wanted to investigate the development of the phonological loop of children 5-17 using digit span
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what sample was used?
570 volunteers from schools in Madrid (large sample size)
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how were the results recorded?
the volunteers were separated into age groups and the average digit span was recorded
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what were the results?
the digit span continues to increase in each age group
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is this valid?
it is debatable as digit span doesn't reflect the everyday use of verbal memory
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what issues need to be considered with this study?
culture differences, e.g. welsh had a poorer digit span due to welsh words taking longer to pronounce (ellis & henelley 1980)
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what was the contemporary study for the learning approach?
Becker et al
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what was the aim of this study?
to see the influence of western tv to unhealthy eating behaviours
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what was the sample of this study?
the first sample was 63 fijian girls in 1995, and 65 fijian girls were studied 3 years later
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what sort of experiment was this? N__________, M________, C____-S________, P__________ design
naturalistic experiment (occurs in a natural setting) multi wave (several different measurements being used) cross-sectional (research that looks at a group of individuals after a set amount of time) prospective design (a study that looks forward)
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what did the eat-26 survey look at?
bingeing and purging behaviours, self reporting quantitative data on attitudes towards eating
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what did the eat-26 survey show?
a score of more than 20 was deemed high, indicating that the persons eating attitude is disordered, those with higher than a score of 20 were interviewed
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what were the results of the surveys?
the percentage of subjects with a score more than 20 had more than doubled. the proportion of the sample that used self-induced vomiting to control weight had increased from 0% to 11% and body dissatisfaction
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what did qualitative data show from the interviews?
an admiration for role models had increased with 77% stating that tv had influenced their body image
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was there a generational difference?
yes, parents felt that the girls should eat more whilst the girls had a desire to eat less
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is there validity?
ecological as this event occurred naturally however lacks validity of diagnosis due to it not being a clinical diagnosis.
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is the study representative?
no as it was a small sample size, and the groups were different participants there was a possibility of a cohort effect
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what's the contemporary study for the social approach?
burger
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what was the aim?
partially replicating milligrams study to find if situational factors will affect obedience
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what was the sample?
the sample was obtained by advertisements, after lots of screening a total of 29 males and 41 females were used aged 20-81 years old.
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what was experiment one?
baseline condition - exactly like milgrams
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what was experiment two?
modelled refusal condition - exactly like the baseline but two teachers were used instead of one, one being a real participant, after the first teacher refused after prompts, burger wanted to see if the actual participant would administer the shocks
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what were the results?
similar to milligrams so changes in society's culture did not have an effect nor did the refusal of the confederate
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what were the ethical concerns?
burger acknowledged milgrams ethical issues so participants were screened rigorously and were told multiple times they could withdraw without consequence
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what were the differences between milgrams and burgers study?
burger only allowed a max of 150v to be used to reduce distress and it would be assumed that at this point these participants would continue to the max voltage as shown in milgrams study
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what is the contemporary study for the criminal approach?
valentine & mesout
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what was the aim?
to test the hypothesis that high arousal can reduce recall and identification of a perpetrator
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what was the incentive for participants to take part?
they were offered a discounted admission if they would fill out a questionnaire at the end of their visit
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what did the questionnaire consist of?
state anxiety questions (how they felt in the dungeons) and trait anxietyy questions ( general experience of emotions) and a free recall of descriptions of the scary person
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how did they identify the scary person?
they were shown 9 photos, one of which was the scary person, they were then asked what their confidence level was of accuracy from 0-100%
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what did the results show in identification of the perpetrator?
those who correctly identified the right photo had higher confidence, those who reported a higher state anxiety were more likely to be incorrect
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what did the results show in general?
females show higher levels of anxiety in stressful situations, being highly anxious reduces the accuracy of identification of a perpetrator
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does this have applicability?
yes, experts should take into account the emotional state of a witness at the time of an event
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what is a strength of this study?
it takes into account individual differences as it asks about trait anxiety as a baseline measure
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what is a weakness of this study?
all participants had chosen to go to the dungeons for fun so may be biased.
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what is the contemporary study for the clinical approach?
carlsson
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what's his aim?
to review studies into the relationship between levels of neurotransmitters, especially dopamine and glutamate, on symptoms of schizophrenia
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what is hyperdopaminergia?
high levels of dopamine
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what is hypoglutamatergia?
low levels of glutamate
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what is the validity and reliability of this study?
it can be unknown due to all of the secondary data being from a variety of different studies however it was very quick and gives a good overview
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what is the key conclusion?
that further research needs to be conducted in developing drugs to treat schizophrenia that avoid negative side effects
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what was the aim of Li et als study?

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to see the relationship between chronic heroin users brain and difference in brain areas - especially interested in the cingulate cortex in the middle of the brain.

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what did the sample consist of?

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what scanner was used to scan their brains?

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how long did they have to stare at a target and do nothing else for?

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