Autistic Spectrum Disorder

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What is Autistic Spectrum Disorder?
A lifelong devleopmental disorder which begins in childhood. Defict with social communication and how they see and understand the world around them.
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CHARACTERISTICS To make a diagnosis of ASD, what are the two broad categories of symptoms to consider?
1. Using communication for social interaction - social emotion reciprocity, non verbal communication, problems devleoping/maintaining relationships. 2. Repetitive behaviours - Patterns, Rotuines, Fixated interests, Unusual reactions
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BIOLOGICAL 1 - Amygdala dysfunction
A cluster of 13 nuclei in temporal lobe. Effects motivation, social interaction & emotions. Baron-Cohen applied this to ASD, neural connectios to frontal lobe, found abnormal development of A in childhood is major cause of deficits in ASD
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BIOLOGICAL 2 - Genetic predisposition, Family & Twin
Family studies - overall sibling risk was 2.2% if sibling had ASD, corresponding rate with no sibling ASD was 0.11% (20x risk) Twin Studies - concordance rate for MZ twins was 60%, DZ twins was 0%, when looked at wider definition 92% MZ and 10% DZ
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INDIVIDUAL 1 - Theory of Mind (ToM)
Cognitive explanation, Theory of mind is being able to understand other peoples internal mental states, being able to interpret and predict others behaviours. Baron-Cohen argues this understanding is impaired in ASD with reduced/delayed ability
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INDIVIDUAL 2 - Weak central coherence theory
Many criticisms of ToM - Frith, Central coherence is our ability to integrate fine details into an overall pattern (seeing the bigger picture) This is lacking in ASD - less likely to understand broader context and tend to focus on isolated details.
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SOCIAL PSYCHOLOGICAL 1 - Emphathising-systemising theory
Explains what ToM couldn't. Baron Cohen - empathising is a drive to recognise and respond to others' emotional states & systemising is the drive to anlyse and understand systems. Those with ASD has impaired empathy and hyperdeveloped systemising.
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SOCIAL PSYCHOLOGICAL 2 - Refrigerator mother
Parents are cold, distant & overly intellectual (focus on mothers) children with ASD are brought up in emotional refrigerators' (Freud agrees) Bettleheim - RM cares for physical needs but is emotionless and unstimulating - primary cause of ASD
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METHOD OF MODIFYING 1 - Picture Exchange Communication System
Frost and Bondy - PECS replaces words with pictures (6 stages) Pre - what object child is fixated on 1. Physical exchange of object for picture 2. More effort from child to exchange 3. Increase range 4. Sentences 5.Q&A 6. Commenting
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METHOD OF MODIFYING 2 - Relationship Development Intervention
RDI - ability to think flexibly and consider events from different points of view. Six areas - 1. Emotional referencing 2. social coordination 3. develop language 4. flexible thinking 5. Problems in a wider context 6. foresight and hindsight
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Card 2

Front

CHARACTERISTICS To make a diagnosis of ASD, what are the two broad categories of symptoms to consider?

Back

1. Using communication for social interaction - social emotion reciprocity, non verbal communication, problems devleoping/maintaining relationships. 2. Repetitive behaviours - Patterns, Rotuines, Fixated interests, Unusual reactions

Card 3

Front

BIOLOGICAL 1 - Amygdala dysfunction

Back

Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4

Front

BIOLOGICAL 2 - Genetic predisposition, Family & Twin

Back

Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5

Front

INDIVIDUAL 1 - Theory of Mind (ToM)

Back

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