Psychology

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Freud
Thought that a large part of the mind is not accessible (the unconscious mind). He thought that the analysis of dreams would uncover the desires of our unconscious mind.
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Manifest content
The parts of a dream which we remember when we wake up.
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Latent content
The underlying meaning of a dream.
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Dreamwork
What the mind does while sleeping that keeps the unconscious mind's desires suppressed. Helps protect the individual.
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Condensation
Condensing many thoughts from the unconscious mind into one symbol.
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Displacement
Something unimportant is made important in the dream to hide what is really important.
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Secondary elaboration
The dreamer builds a story when recalling the dream - rearranging and adding ideas.
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Psychoanalysis
Freud's method of therapy to help release unconscious thoughts - 'The talking cure'.
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Free association
The free flow of thoughts of the patient. Helps uncover links which can be interpreted.
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Slip of the tongue
When someone says the wrong word for something. Used to help uncover unconscious thoughts.
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Dream analysis
Listening to a person's dreams and interpreting them.
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Strength Freud's dream theory - Unique methods
Used creative and unique methods to uncover unconscious thoughts of the patient like dream analysis.
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Strength Freud's dream theory - In-depth, real life data
He listened to his patients over a long period of time so gathered a lot of information. Only carried out analysis if he knew them well and they co-operated. Real life data, came directly from patient = valid. Qualitative data = detail and depth.
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Weakness Freud's dream theory - Biased
Worked mainly with wealthy, Austrian families - findings not generalisable.
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Weakness Freud's dream theory - Hard to measure
Unconscious thoughts not proved to exist. Freud's theories are not science.
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Weakness Freud's dream theory - Subjective
Other analysts may interpret an individual's dream differently so hard to call one interpretation 'true'.
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Activation synthesis theory of dreaming
Hobson and McCarley came up with biological explanation to dreaming. Dreams are the random firing of messages across neurones in the brain that are then synthesised (made into a story).
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REM (rapid eye movement) sleep
Happens 5 times a night. There is a sensory blockade of the senses and movement inhibition. This is when dreaming occurs due to the random activation of electrical impulses.
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Evidence for activation synthesis
Sleep labs study people in REM sleep. Studies cat's brains during REM sleep - found pons and RAS active and involved in movement inhibition. If neurones activated are ones that control balance then falling sensation felt.
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Development in activation synthesis
Meaning in dreams, random firing of messages generates ideas. Brain activity genetic and evolutionary.
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Weakness in activation synthesis theory of dreaming - dreams make sense
Only 34% of 200 people in a study by Hobson said their dreams were random. If dreams make sense or relate to a current situation then how can they be random?
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Weakness in activation synthesis theory of dreaming - Lucid dreaming
When people are dreaming but know they are dreaming and are able to control events in dreams. Suggests they aren't random.
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Weakness in activation synthesis theory of dreaming - Young children
Children under 5 show to have normal amount of REM sleep but only a few dreams - suggests there isn't a link.
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Generalisability
When findings can be applied to many people and be true.
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Reliability
If a study is repeated and the findings are the same.
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Subjectivity
When a finding can have lots of different interpretations affected by the researcher.
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Objectivity
Where a researcher has no bias and their own views have not affected an investigation.
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Strength of dream analysis - Accessing hard to reach info
Useful in uncovering 'hidden' information from the unconscious which is not known to the individual.
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Strength of dream analysis - Accepted by patient
People usually accept the interpretation given to them as they agree with it, meaning they are more likely to be 'cured'
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Strength of dream analysis - Dreams offered by client
Dreams are offered by clients themselves. If they are thought to be meaningful to them then it makes the dream analysis relevant.
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Weakness of dream analysis - Ethical issues
If a wrong interpretation suggested by the analyst is accepted then it may lead to 'false memories' e.g child abuse. Dream analysis can also be painful/ traumatic - taking back to childhood etc.
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Weakness of dream analysis - Interpretation
Dream analysis is subjective so can be interpreted differently by different analysts, making it less reliable. Interpretations may not be valid as they may suggest something different to the reality.
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Insomnia
When someone cannot get to sleep/ stay asleep, Usually treated with prescribed drugs, teaching relaxation techniques.
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Hypersomnia
When people feel tired all the time.
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Circadian rhythm disorders
Affects someone's 'body clock'. Can be treated by using bright lights at certain times.
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Parasomnia
When people have nightmares, sleep terrors, sleepwalk. Psychotherapy and sleep disorder clinics used for treatment.
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Medication
Prescribed drugs for those with insomnia, narcolepsy etc.
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Cognitive behavioural therapy (CBT)
Replacing negative, anxious thoughts about sleep with positive ones.
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Acupuncture
Inserting needles into related parts of the body (meridians). Helps reset body clock to re-adjust sleep cycle. Scientific evidence that it is effective.
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Hypnotherapy
Therapist uncovers problems from extremely relaxed patient and suggests ways to improve them
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Other cards in this set

Card 2

Front

The parts of a dream which we remember when we wake up.

Back

Manifest content

Card 3

Front

The underlying meaning of a dream.

Back

Preview of the back of card 3

Card 4

Front

What the mind does while sleeping that keeps the unconscious mind's desires suppressed. Helps protect the individual.

Back

Preview of the back of card 4

Card 5

Front

Condensing many thoughts from the unconscious mind into one symbol.

Back

Preview of the back of card 5
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