Psychology

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Rods
Light sensitive receptors in the eye. Able to work in dim light. Found around the sides of the retina.
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Cones
Colour sensitive receptors in the eye. Only work in bright light. Found in the centre of the retina.
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Optic nerve
Bundle of nerves leading from the retina to the brain.
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Nerve impulse
Information is carried from the rods and cones in the form of an electrical impulse. The impulse travels along the optic nerve to the brain.
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Blind spot
The area of the retina where the optic nerve leaves. There are no rods or cones present.
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Optic chiasma
The cross shape in which information is carried from the left and right eyes to the opposite sides of the brain.
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Visual cortex
An area at the back of the brain that makes sense of the information from the rods and cones. It interprets the image and fills in the blind spot.
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Monocular depth cues
An interpretation of depth that can be made from just one eye.
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Relative size
Smaller objects are further away than larger objects.
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Texture gradient
More detailed areas are closer than areas with less detail.
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Height in the plane
Objects closer to the horizon are further away.
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Superimposition
An object behind another object is further away.
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Linear perspective
Parallel lines converge in the distance. They have a 'vanishing point'.
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Binocular depth cues
An interpretation of depth that needs both eyes.
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Steriopsis
The greater the difference between the views of each individual eye, the closer the object is.
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Gestalt Laws
The sum of the whole is worth more than all of the parts.
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Figure-ground
A small complex figure is seen as separate from its background.
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Similarity
Similar objects are grouped together.
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Proximity
Close together objects are grouped.
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Continuity
A repeated pattern is perceived as continuing/carrying on the same.
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Closure
Lines and shapes are perceived as being complete figures even if parts are missing.
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Visual illusion
A conflict between reality and what we perceive.
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Fiction
When a shape's edges are seen even when there is no actual boundary present. e.g Kanizsa traingle
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Motion after-effect
Paying attention to movement in one direction then seeing it move in the opposite direction immediately afterwards.
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Colour after-effect
After staring at a colour for a long time, the cones in the eye become tired and switch to the opposite colour. You will see an image of the opposite colour immediately afterwards.
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Ambiguous figures
When a stimulus has two possible interpretations and it is possible to see only one at any time. e.g Leeper's Lady
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Distortion
When our brain is deceived by some aspect of the stimulus and we see it as different. e.g Muller-Lyer
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Gestalt + fictions e.g Kanizsa triangle
Our perception sees a 'whole' shape so we complete the edges to make a regular or familiar shape. Continuity joins the lines. Similarity organises dots and lines.
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Gestalt + distortions e.g Muller-Lyer
The circles/fins pull the 'whole' together or stretch it out, making it look longer or shorter.
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Gestalt + ambiguous figures e.g Rubin's vase
We identify one part of the object as the 'figure' and the other part as the 'ground'. Both parts of the object can be either.
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Strengths of Gestalt theory of illusions
Explains ambiguous figures and fictions well
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Weaknesses of Gestalt theory of illusions
Gregory's theory explains distortions better. It suggests we use closure to see the Kanizsa triangle, meaning we should see a six pointed star.
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Gregory's perspective theory of illusions
Uses size constancy and linear perspective to interpret patterns and angled lines of illusions.
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Gregory + Hering illusion
The lines all converge at a vanishing point, giving the perception of depth. The objects appear larger nearer the vanishing point as we use size constancy to scale them up.
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Gregory + Ponzo illusion
Converging lines act as a depth cue. We scale the line nearest the vanishing point up and see it as bigger.
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Gregory + Muller-Lyer
Linear perspective with lines - lines converging makes line look shorter. Use size constancy to scale down line
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Strengths of Gregory's perspective theory of illusions
Good explanations of distortions with angles lines. Can also explain Leeper's lady (young woman's nose further away than old womans)
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Weaknesses of Gregory's perspective theory of illusions
Cannot explain the Muller-Lyer illusion with circles. Fictions are better explained by Gestalt.
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Schema
Framework of knowledge about something which can affect our perception of it.
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Perceptual set
The tendency to notice some things more than others in a situation.
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Independent variable
Factor which is changed to make conditions.
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Dependent variable
Factor which is measured dependent on these conditions.
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Independent groups design
Different ppts in each condition.
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Repeated measures design
Same ppts in every condition.
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Informed consent
Ppts right to know the aim and procedure of an experiment.
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Right to withdraw
Ppts right to leave study at any time.
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Deception
When ppts are wrongly informed of the aims of the research. (sometimes necessary to avoid demand characteristics)
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Confidentiality
Ppt's data must be kept anonymous and not shared outside of the investigation.
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Eyewitnesses + schemas
An eyewitness's recall of an event may be inaccurate if they use schemas.
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Other cards in this set

Card 2

Front

Colour sensitive receptors in the eye. Only work in bright light. Found in the centre of the retina.

Back

Cones

Card 3

Front

Bundle of nerves leading from the retina to the brain.

Back

Preview of the back of card 3

Card 4

Front

Information is carried from the rods and cones in the form of an electrical impulse. The impulse travels along the optic nerve to the brain.

Back

Preview of the back of card 4

Card 5

Front

The area of the retina where the optic nerve leaves. There are no rods or cones present.

Back

Preview of the back of card 5
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