Psychology

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Variable
Anything that can change.
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Independent Variable
Variable that is manipulated by the Researcher. Must state both conditions to be operationalised.
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Dependent Variable
The Variable that is measured by the Researcher. Must be operationalised (TIme Period, No. of...).
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Extraneous Variables
A variable other than the IV that can affect the DV and should be controlled.
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Confounding Variable
A particular type of extraneous varible that has not been controlled and could invalidate the results.
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Operationalisation
Variables written in a measurable form.
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Lab Experiment
A experiment where the IV is manipulated by the experimenter to produce a change in the DV and is conducted in an artifical environment.
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Field Experiment
A experiment where the IV is manipulated to produce a change in the DV and is conducted in the participant's natural environment.
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Quasi Experiment
A experiment where the IV naturally exists (Age, Gender). Mainly done in an artifical environment but can be done in a natural environment.
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Natural Experiment
A experiment where the IV is changed through natural occurrence instead of being manipulated by the experimenter. It is done in the participant's natural environment.
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Ecological Validity
Whether the results of a study can be generalised to real life situations outside of the experimental set-up.
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Demand Characteristics
When the participant guesses the aim of the study and acts in the way they think the experimenter wants them to.
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Screw You Effect
When a participant guesses the aim of the study and deliberately acts in a way that will invalidate the study.
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Social Desirability Bias
The tendency for people to be seen in the best light.
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Researcher/Observer/Interviewer Effect
The effect the researcher/observer/interviewer has on the participant. Will differ in age, gender, ethnicity etc. which may have an effect on the participants.
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Hypothesis
A prediction of what will happen.
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Null Hypothesis
A hypothesis that states there will be no effect from the IV on the DV.
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Alternative/Experimental Hypothesis
A prediction of the results of a study saying something will happen.
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Directional Hypothesis (1 Tailed)
A Experimental Hypothesis stating what direction the effect of the IV on the DV will be.
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Non-Directional Hypothesis (2 Tailed)
A Experimental Hypothesis stating that there will be a effect on the DV from the IV but not which direction it will be.
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Sample
A small collection of participants that represent the generalisation of the whole population.
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Target Population
A large population that consists of all the members of a group of people from which the sample has been taken from.
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Biased Sample
A sample that is not representative of the whole population.
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Random Sampling
Every member of the target population has an equal of chance of being selected.
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Opportunity Sampling
Selecting participants that are available at the time.
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Volunteer (Self-Selecting) Sampling
Participants that volunteered to be involved in the study.
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Stratified Sampling
Dividing the target population into subcatergories, then selecting participants from the catergories at the correct proportions
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Systematic Sampling
A sample obtained by selecting every nth person on a list.
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Research Design
How the experimenter designs their experiment.
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Independent Groups Design
Different participants are used in each condition and are allocated randomly to prevent a biased sample
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Repeated Groups Design
The same participants are used in each condition.
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Matched Pairs Design
Participants are matched together so different but similar participants are used in each condition.
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Order Effects
How the order of the experiment affects the results. Mainly occurs in Repeated Groups Design. Avoided through Counterbalancing.
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Counterbalancing
Having 1/2 of the participants do Condition A 1st then Condition B and the other 1/2 do it vice-versa.
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Participant Variables
The individual differences each participant has.
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Correlation
The measurement of the relationship between 2 co-variables. Must be done on a Scattergraph.
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Co-Variables
The variables that the researcher investigates the relationship between.
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Positive Correlation
When one variable increases so does the other.
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Negative Correlation
When one variable increases whilst the other decreases.
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Correlation Coefficient
A number between -1 and 1 that shows how strong the correlation is.
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Naturalistic Observation
An observation of the participant's behaviour in thier natural setting. The observermakes no attempt to interfere or influence their behaviour.
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Controlled Observation
An observation where some variables are controlled by the observer which reduces the realism of the results as participants are more likely to know they are being observed.
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Overt Observation
The participant is aware of being observed.
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Covert Observation
The participants are unaware of being observed. Can cause Ethical Issues.
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Participant Observation
The observer is part of the group being observed and interacts withg the participants.
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Non-Participant Observation
The observer has no interaction with the participants and only watches/listens to thier behaviour.
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Observer Bias
Observers select what they see and tend to see what they expect to see.
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Behaviour Checklist
A list of specified catergories that ticked/tallied each time they occur during the observeration.
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Inter-Observer Reliability
The degree to which two or more observers agree.
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Time Sampling
When the observer records what behaviours are occurring at certain time intervals.
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Event Sampling
When the observer records how many times a certain behaviour(s) occur in a set time period.
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Questionnaire Survey
Allows the resercher to gain information from a large number of people quickly and effficiently by having them complete questions. They can be done by phone, post, pen & paper or on the internet.
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Open Question
Questions that allow participants to elaborate on their responses as the range of answers is not restricted.
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Closed Question
Questions that have a restricted set of answers that are usually circled or ticked by the participant.
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Filler Question
Questions that are irrelevant to the study but hide the aim from the participant.
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Lie Detection Question
Questions that show Social Desirability Bias.
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Qualitative Data
Non-Numerical Data
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Quantitative Data
Numerical Data
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Interview
Where a interviewer asks participants questions face-to-face to collect results for a study.
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Structured Interview
Interviews that have a pre-determined set of questions that are asked in a particular order to the participants face-to-face.
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Unstructured Interview
These interviews are far less rigid, the topic is chosen in advance and the interview is more like a conversation as there is no set questions and interviewees are encouraged to expand on their answers.
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Semi-Structured Interview
A mixture of the other two types of interview - There is a list of questions but the interviewers are free to ask follow-up questions.
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Interview Schedule
A pre-determined set of questions to be asked in a particular order. It should be standardised so that each interviewer uses it the same way.
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Interviwer Bias
Bias that appears in research findings because of the social nature of the interviewer.
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BPS Ethical Guidelines
A form of rules the researcher should follow during their study to avoid Ethical Issues e.g. Right to Withdraw, Protection from physical and psychological harm etc.
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Informed Consent
Participants were told what the experiment involves and gave their consent.
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Debriefing
Informing the participants about the experiement after the experiment has been completed and giving them the right to withdraw.
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Confidentiality
Participants should be know as numbers instead of their names to protect their private information.
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Protection from Harm
Any risks of harm in a study should be no more than those faced in everyday life.
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Privacy
Participants private information should be kept private and not asked about.
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Reliability
The consistentcy of results.
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Test-Retest Reliability
If the Same Participants get the Same Results on the Same Test after a period of time.
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Other cards in this set

Card 2

Front

Variable that is manipulated by the Researcher. Must state both conditions to be operationalised.

Back

Independent Variable

Card 3

Front

The Variable that is measured by the Researcher. Must be operationalised (TIme Period, No. of...).

Back

Preview of the back of card 3

Card 4

Front

A variable other than the IV that can affect the DV and should be controlled.

Back

Preview of the back of card 4

Card 5

Front

A particular type of extraneous varible that has not been controlled and could invalidate the results.

Back

Preview of the back of card 5
View more cards

Comments

Pine Tree

This is extremely useful for revision. Thank you very much ^^

ValkyrieScythe

screw you effect = demand characteristics

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