Psychologists in Aetiologies of Depression

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McGuffin et al
studied 177 twins with depression and found a concordance rate of 46% for identical twins and 20% for fraternal twins
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Gershon
rates of depression with 1st degree relative with depression is 2-3 times higher than in the general population
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Wender
Biological relatives of sufferers of depression are 7 times more likely than their adopted relatives to have had major depression themselves
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Wihelm et al (2006)
Said genes have a significant role with genetics. He interviewed 150 Australian teachers every 5 years for 20 years. Found negative life events linked to depression. Those who had short short form of serotonin transporter gene more vulnerable
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Egeland et al (1987)
study linked to depression. Studied the Amish who have a low incidence of depression. One family had high level of bipolar and it was found that 2 marker genes on chromosome 11 were different. Involved in production of biochemical in depression
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Freud
Depressed people repress anger to lost person (who he identifies with) to self. More vulnerable to depression. Also explained about childhood experiences.
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Shah and Waller
supported that childhood experiences that are apparent in adults makes them more vulnerable to depression
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Bifulco et al
women who lost their mother as a child were more likely to suffer from anxiety and depression as adults
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Beck and Ward
found no evidence that repressed anger emerged in dreams (Which according to psycho dynamic principles they should have done)
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Weissman et al
People direct anger to those around them
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Seligman
Theory of learned helplessness
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Beck
Said depression is due to negative self schema. This was explained in Beck's Cognitive Traid
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Lewinbsohn
There is no relationship between negative thoughts, irrational beliefs and future depression
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Nolen-Hoeksma et al
negative thoughts do make people more vulnerable to depression, but there still needs to be a environmental trigger
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Kendler
Found a high incidence of mental disorders when looking at depression and anxiety (Depression can be linked to other psychological disorders)
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Gershon

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rates of depression with 1st degree relative with depression is 2-3 times higher than in the general population

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Wender

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Wihelm et al (2006)

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Egeland et al (1987)

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