Psychological Investigations

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  • Created by: Bryony
  • Created on: 14-04-14 11:16
What are the 5 approaches?
Cognitive, Biological(or physiological), Social, Developmental and Individual Differences
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What is the psychoanalytical perspective and who developed it?
Sigmund Freud and the perspective believes that much of our behaviour stems from unconscious processes
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What is the behaviorist persepective?
belief that we were all born as blank slates and everything we know we have learned
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What is classical conditioning?
Learning by association
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What is operant conditioning?
Learning by reward and punishment
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What is social learning theory?
Learning by intimidation
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What are the 3 types of sampling?
Random, opportunistic and volunteer (or self-selecting)
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What is random sampling?
Everyone in the population has an equal chance of being pick. Example is names picked out of a top hat
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Give a strength and weakness of random sampling.
Strength: unbiased because everyone has an equal chance. Weakness: need a small population and may become biased if not all the people selected participant
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Give a strength and weakness of opportunity sampling.
Strength: easy method. Weakness: biased because the researcher chooses who they want
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Give a strength and weakness of volunteer (or self-selecting) sampling.
Strength: have access to a variety of different people for various backgrounds. More diverse. Weakness: biased because the participants are more likely to be highly motivated
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Name the 8 different types of observation
Covert, overt, naturalistic, controlled, participant, non-participant, time sampling and event sampling
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What is a covert observation?
Observing people without their permission
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What is a overt observation?
Observing with people's permission before hand
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What is a naturalist observation?
Observign people in their natural environment e.g. a pub
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What is a controlled observation?
Observing people in a controlled environment e.g. a lab
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What is a participant obseration?
This is when the observer takes part in the study
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What is a non-participant observation?
When the observer does not take part in the study
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What is event sampling?
The observer counts how many times a certain behaviour happens
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What is time sampling?
Observer has a time interval e.g. a minute and behaviours are noted at the end of the time interval.
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Name the 7 ethical guidelines.
Consent, confidentiality, debrief, deception, colleagues, withdrawal, protection of participants
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Name the 3 types of experiments.
Lab, field and quasi
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Strength and weakness of a lab experiment.
Strength: highly controlled (easy to see cause and effect. Weakness: low in ecological validity
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Strength and weakness of a field experiment.
Strength: high in ecological validity (natural environment). Weakness: less control (less reliable)
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Strength and weakness of a quasi experiment.
Strength: can practically or ethically manipulate the IV. Weakness: lose a bit of control
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Give the four types of hypotheisis
One tailed, two tailed, alternate, null (make sure you know how to do each one)
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Give the three participant designs.
Independent measure, repeated measures, matched pair (NB: know what each is and its strengths and weaknesses)
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What is counter-balancing?
Half the participants do condition A then B. The other half do condition B first then A. This means that both conditions are equally influenced by order effects
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What is a confounding variable?
A variable that effects the DV
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What is an extraneous variable?
A variable that could affect the DV but it has been controlled
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What three types of correlation are there?
Positive, negative, no correlation
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What are descriptive statistics?
summary of data to illustrate patterns and relationships but cannot infer conclusions
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What are inferential statistics?
Statistical tests that allow us to make conclusions in relation to the hypothesis
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What two types of questions are there in a self-report?
Open and closed
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Give two types of Self-report.
Hand-outs, email or face-to-face
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What are the two types of interviews?
Structured and unstructured
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Other cards in this set

Card 2

Front

What is the psychoanalytical perspective and who developed it?

Back

Sigmund Freud and the perspective believes that much of our behaviour stems from unconscious processes

Card 3

Front

What is the behaviorist persepective?

Back

Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4

Front

What is classical conditioning?

Back

Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5

Front

What is operant conditioning?

Back

Preview of the front of card 5
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