Psychological approach

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Two psychological factors that caused mental disorders
1. Poor quality early relationships 2. Traumatic childhood experiences
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List the 5 psychosexual stages of developmentand the age they happen
1. Oral (0-18 months) 2. Anal (18-36 months) 3. Phallic (3-6 years) 4. Latency (6 years) 5. Genital (Puberty - Maturity)
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Characteristics of oral stage
Pleasure gained from eating and sucking. Important to be weaned off appropriately, too soon/late could lead to fixation - If this occurs adult is likely to experience addictive behaviour (e.g. smoking)
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Characteristics of anal stage
Occurs during potty training, child derives pleasure from withholding or expelling faeces. If parents are too lenient or too strict could lead to fixation - adult becomes too particular and obessive ("he's so anal")
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Characteristics of phallic stage
Electra complex and Oedipus complex
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What is Electra complex?
Girls realise they don't have a penis and feel inadequate - realise they will never have one and accpet this, then desire to have a baby instead. If these complexes are not resolved a firm gender identity can't develop
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What is Oedipus complex?
Boy develops feelings of affection for mother but fears his father will find out and castrate him 'castration fear' therefore represses his desire for his mother
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Characteristics of genital stage
Child is now able to develop friendships and relationships having resolved earlier conflicts. This will provide basis for all future relationships
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How might Freud explain OCD?
Stuck in anal stage - strict/clean parents/traumatic experience involving mess/dirt
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Massie and Sternberg's findings
Weak correlation between mental health probs and poor parental relationships. Stronger correlation between mental health probs and traumatic childhood events
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Weakness of psychodynamic approach
Subjective (other people have different interpretation)
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What is free-association?
A psychodynamic therapy. Relaxed atmosphere, patients talk freely about whatever they want (e.g. memories, dreams, family)
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What is word-association?
Analyst says words and patient says first thing that pops into head
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Three different techniques within psychoanalysis
Catharsis, Transference, Reparenting
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What is catharsis?
Recall and sometimes reproduce traumatic event, trauma is re-experienced and worked through in safety of therapy room, the emotion may be discharged
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What is transference?
Like roleplay; analyst takes on role of key person. Analyst can give feedback about how th patients current relationshiips are due to the infuence of early relationships
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What is reparenting?
Most influential relationship is with our parents, if patient has bad relationship the analist can re-parent them to form a good relationship instead. Crucial to patients who haven't had good relationships
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Three practical issues of psychoanalysis
1. Expensive (£80-100 per session) 2. Tiime consuming can take many hours (may miss work/commitments) 3. Hard for people to bring up/relive the past
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Is psychoanalysis effective?
Eysenck concluded there was no evidence that psychoanalysis increased the probability of patients getting better. Patients with or without psy'analysis both showed a 66% improvement rate (Weakness)
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Card 2


List the 5 psychosexual stages of developmentand the age they happen


1. Oral (0-18 months) 2. Anal (18-36 months) 3. Phallic (3-6 years) 4. Latency (6 years) 5. Genital (Puberty - Maturity)

Card 3


Characteristics of oral stage


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Card 4


Characteristics of anal stage


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Card 5


Characteristics of phallic stage


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