Psychodynamic approach.

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What are the Psychodynamic assumptions?
1. Childhood influences 2. The Unconscious mind 3. Tripartite personality
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Explain Childhood influences
They are key development stages throughout childhood including Oral, Anal, Phallic, Latency, Genital. If these are not successfully resolved this can lead to a child becoming fixated at this stage. Long-lasting effects on personality.
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Carry on
Frustration = child unsatisfied, overindulgence = child too comfortable.
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Explain Oral
0-18 months, chewing, sucking, breast feeding, then solid foods, pessimism then neediness.
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Explain Anal
18- 3 years, pooing, potty training, stubborn then messy.
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Explain Phallic
3-5 years, Masturbation, Oedipus complex, may have problems with sexuality and maintaining relationships.
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Explain Latency
5- puberty, nothing, gaining knowledge of the world, no pleasure so no fixations.
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Explain Genital
Sex, well-developed personality if all complexes are solved.
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Explain the unconscious mind
the mind can be compared with an iceberg, (mention where they are placed), Freud. Unconscious can not be acessed but controls behaviour and emotional drives, this usually spikes up in dreams (conflicts will turn up too but will be in a symbol form)
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Defence mechanisms if an example is needed.
Its the ego defending itself, Repression, pushing memory so deep so everything is effectively forgotten.
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Id
Three parts, pleasure principle, our libido, there from birth, needs instant gratification.
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Ego
2 years old, reality principle, balancing the demands of the id in a socially acceptable way,
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Superego
5 years, morality principle, conscience, sense of right and wrong and ones self, learned through identification of ones parents or others. ego may have resolve conflict if it arises.
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Explain relationship formation part 1. Oral
Attachments. oral means the responsibility of the caregiver is in place to provide the satisfaction, overindulgence means unhealthy dependence.
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Part 2. superego
Superego = child develops morality through bonding with the parent of the same sex, this helps explain attachment between mother and daughter as we learn about morals.
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part 3 Id
Form healthy and early relationships, Mother is the provider of the gratification, we will form an association between her and pleasure , thus form a bond.
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Therapy links to assumptions
Insight, conscious thought and feeling conscious so you can confront them. catharsis is talking about feelings so you will feel better about them.
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Part 2
ego is alseep when we are so the unconscious material could seep through in form of dreams.
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Part 3 psychoanalysis
this is one threrapy used by freud to treat mental disorders. it is based on the assumptions that individuals are unaware of the unconscious conflicts in their current pysche.
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main components
Dreams are the royal road to the unconscious. It expresses itself through dreams
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Dreams as wish fufilment
These are wishes that cannot be expressed when conscious so dreams protect the sleeper but also express the buried urges that are in the unconscious.
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Dreamwork
What are they (use the book) c d r s s
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Role of the therapist
To reverse the dreamwork process but to offer many interpretations so the client can choose which makes the most sense.
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what are latent and manifest content
Latent is the real meaning and manifest is the story/content you experience.
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Symbolic nature of dreams
Dreams are represented symolically like the manifest ad latent like a penis is a snake but to understand they need to be considered in the context of the persons life. - sometimes a cigar is just a cigar
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explain Solms (2000)
PET scans on sleeping people brains - during REM the rational parts of the brain id dormant so the ego is dormant while the parts of memory (id) take over.
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Explain Hopfields
Used computer stimulations to mimic actions of the brain, when overloaded with memory the neural networks condensed the information. Supports Freud s condensation notion.
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Methodological issues
People are sleep deprived to be tested when dreaming. this has an effect oh jormoned, and chemicals which could be confounding variables. Sleep in labortories may not be be as effective as authentic sleep as it is not under normal conditions.
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ethical issues
Client and therapist relationship causes dependence and can create psychological harm. FMS they do this to make therapy last longer. Insight client gains it and can cause emotional harm.
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MPFC of Bolwby - M
Seris of case studies, group of 44 children with serious issues that we all charged to attend a guidance clinic in London. 31 boys and 13 girls. the control group has not stolen - matched pairs.
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P
Mental tests to assess IQ and attitudes, socials workers made reports then psychiatrists had interviews with the children and their mothers. A provisional diagnoses was made after the 2 hour evaluation. Some children were given psychotherapy by the
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F
2 of the children were normal but not stable. 40% had experienced prolonged separation . 5 out of the 27 cases the fathers were openly hostile and mothers were also nagy. 14 were affectionless.
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C
early years are of great importance, crime is a social and economic problem not just psychological, carers should be made aware so behaviour can be stopped.
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Evaluation - method
Sample from london biased and small so cannot generalise, grades of stealing allowed differences to be established. Cannot generalise the whole population as it is subjective and is in bowlby's point of view,
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Eval - general ethics
Consent was given but was not confidential, report gave all details, but was published many years later so there was not consent.
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Eval - Social
Parent can stay with child in hospital, NHS encourages breastfeeding, custody often given to the mother, society put pressure on the mother, why?
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Eval - Alternative research
Hodges and Tizzard, kids had problems with attention they were bullies, they were adopted young and were followed, longitudinal study. Romanian orphans - separation did not cause bad behaviour as long as they had good care. Child normally developed
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Evaluating the approach = strengths
Nature and nurture, usefulness
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evaluating the approach = weaknesses
Not falsifiable and determinist - we have no control over who we become, valid excuse for bad behaviour.
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Name the essay
Mother as the primary care giver.
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Card 2

Front

Explain Childhood influences

Back

They are key development stages throughout childhood including Oral, Anal, Phallic, Latency, Genital. If these are not successfully resolved this can lead to a child becoming fixated at this stage. Long-lasting effects on personality.

Card 3

Front

Carry on

Back

Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4

Front

Explain Oral

Back

Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5

Front

Explain Anal

Back

Preview of the front of card 5
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