Psychcology- Attachment

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Outline the procedure of the Strange Situation
Ainsworth carried out a study into stress caused by the presence of a stranger and the separation from a caregiver. The aim was to test the quality of infant’s attachment . Lasted 20 mins, used 100 middle class USA infants aged 12-18 months.
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Outline the results of the Strange Situation
70% infants-securely attached-When CG present infant happy to explore, moderate distress when separated, easily soothed on reunion, prefers CG to stranger. 20%-avoidant-little attention to CG, little SA, avoids CG on return.10% resistant-V distressed
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Evaluation of the Strange Situation
(-) Children who have been in day care may appear avoidant but actually not. (-) Kagan suggests temperament hypothesis. (+) Easily replicated
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What is Bowlby's explanation of attachment?
Biological and instinctive. Attachment is essential to survive. Relationship with mother is a template for other relationships. Critical period to form an attachment of 0-2.5 years
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Evaluation of Bowlby's evolutionary theory of attachment
(+) Bowlby's work is very influential, led to changes in the way children were looked after. (-) Ethnocentric-different methods of raising- Israeli Kibbutz.(-) Schaffer and Emerson- 60 scottish infants-at 8 months 50 had more than 1 attachment.
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What are the two branches of the learning theory of Attachment?
Classical conditioning is learning due to associations with different stimuli. Operant conditioning- behaviour altered by patterns of reinforcement
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Outline classical conditioning in the Learning Theory
Food=unconditioned stimulus that produces an unconditioned response (pleasure).At first the CG is a neutral stimulus When she is continually paired with the unconditioned stimulus (food) she becomes a conditioned stimulus.
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Outline Operant conditioning in the Learning Theory
When the child makes the association between the caregiver and satisfaction of their needs, the food is a PR as a direct pleasure and the CG is a SR.Attachment to the one who supplies the food. Infant has drive reduction.
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Evaluation of the Learning Theory
(-) Research has shown that CC is not sufficient to explain attachment. Schaffer & Emerson- infant attached to others than the one that fed them.(-) Harlow- not just food but physical comfort.
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Outline the investigations of Fox
Fox studied Israeli Kibbutzim where the children sent a large amount of time looked after by a metataplet. Use of the strange situation found the mother was still the primary attachment figure.
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Outline the investigation of Tronik
Tronik (1992) studied an African tribe, the Efe, from Zaire where infants are looked after and breast fed by by different women, although they did sleep with their own mother at night. At six months old the infants still showed one primary attachment
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Outline Takahashi's investigation into cross cultural variations
Takahashi (1990) used the strange situation to study 60 middle-class Japanese infants and their mothers. Similar rates of secure (68%) no insecure avoidant and higher resistant -may be because they were not used to being separated from their mothers.
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Outline Van Ijzendoorn & Kroonenburg's investigation into cultural variations
Van Ijzendoorn&Kroonenberg (1988) used a meta-analysis of 32 studies using the Strange Situation in 8 different countries. They found.variation within a culture=1½ greater than the variation between cultures. In all cultures the highest% were secure.
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Evaluation of Cultural variations within attachment
(-) Ethnocentric- strange situation will not represent all cultures for example Japan. (-) Variations within cultures mean you cannot label one culture.(-) Cross cultural similaritie may be the effects of mass media as opposed to innate similarities.
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Outline the procedure of Robertson and Robertson's investigation into disruption of attachment
John was placed in a residential nursery for 9 days. On day 3 he became increasingly distressed, on day 9 when his mother arrived he screamed and struggled away from her. he showed no sign of attachment
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What are the effects of disruption of attachment?
Distress is found when there is a disruption of attachment: three components of distress are :1. Protest- crying, kicking, screaming. 2. Despair- rocking, thumb sucking, thinks the mother will not return.3.Detachment-may have to relearn relationship
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Evaluation of Robertson and Robertson
(+) Research has high validity as it is a naturalistic observation. (-) Lacks validity also as findings based on case studies of only a few children. Also found that familiar objects and toys may make the separation less detrimental.
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Outline Hodges and Tizard's procedure in the investigation into privation
65 children placed in an institution when they were less than 4 months old were studied. . Each child had about 50 different carers so no opportunity to form an attachment. At 4 yrs: 24 children had been adopted,15 were restored to biological mothers
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Outline the finding of Hodges and Tizard
There were differences between the ex-institutional children and control group. At age 4 the institutional children were more attention seeking and more affectionate. At age 8 most of the children had formed close attachments with parents
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Outline the findings of Hodges and Tizard cont:
At age 16 the adopted children were more closely attached than the restored children. All the ex-institutional adolescents were less likely to have a special friend, to be part of a crowd, or to be liked by other children.
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Evaluation of Hodges and Tizard
(-)The sample was small to begin but as a longitudinal study, attrition occurred. May be biased as more troubled children may have dropped out.(+)Exploits a naturally occurring situation,not be able to be set up for ethical reasons.
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Outline the case study of Genie, an investigation into isolated children
Genie was found when she was 13 years old (Curtiss). Her history was one of isolation, severe neglect and physical restraint.Curtiss described her as,primitive;.Genie never achieved good social adjustment or language despite intervention
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Outline the case study of the czech Twins, an study into isolated children
The twin boys spent the first seven years of their lives locked up. When found they were severely affected but they were cared for an excellent foster family and by the age of 20 were above average intelligence and formed excellent relationships
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Institutionalised care: Quinton et al's investigation
The researchers followed a group of women who had been reared in institutions.These women had extreme difficulties when they became parents – for example, their children were more frequently in care and the women were less sensitive.
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Outline Rutter et al's study with Romanian orphans into the effect of institutional care
Rutter studied a group of 100 Romanian orphans and assessed them at 4, 6 & 11 yrs.Those who were adopted by British families before the age of 6 mths have shown ‘normal’ emotional development when compared with UK children adopted at the same age.
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Evaluation of Rutter et al's study
Many of the Romanian orphans adopted after 6 months showed disinhibited attachments. (-) Methodological issues- difficulty in obtaining info about institutions. (-) Attrition. (+) Uses a range of methods- interviews and observation.
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Belsky and Rovine, a study into day care and social development
Belsky & Rovine compared the quality of attachment shown by young children who spent time in day care and those remaining at home with their mothers. More than 20hrs a week in day care were 59% secure & 41% insecure.Less than 20h 74% secure, 26% (I).
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Belsky (2001) a study into day care and aggression
Belsky found that the more time children spent in day care, the more aggressive they were. Children who spent more than 30 hrs a week in day care were found to be 17% agressive towards peers, Those who spent less than 10hrs a week were 6% aggressive
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Shea (1981) a study into day care and peer relations
Shea (1981) 3-4yr old children were assessed for their social skills during their 10 weeks of attending a nursery school. One group went 5 days per week, one twice a week, Those who went 5 days a week improved more quickly
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Field (1991) a study into day care and peer relations
Field (1991) found that the amount of time spent in full-time day-care was positively correlated to the number of friends children had once they went to school.
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Outline the results of the Strange Situation

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70% infants-securely attached-When CG present infant happy to explore, moderate distress when separated, easily soothed on reunion, prefers CG to stranger. 20%-avoidant-little attention to CG, little SA, avoids CG on return.10% resistant-V distressed

Card 3

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Evaluation of the Strange Situation

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Card 4

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What is Bowlby's explanation of attachment?

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Card 5

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Evaluation of Bowlby's evolutionary theory of attachment

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