Psych studies paper 2

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  • Created on: 02-05-18 19:36
Miller 1962
Purpose of psychology is to promote wellbeing
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Nicholls 2000
diagnosis using classification manuals of children with eating disorders. DSM (64% IRR), ICD (36%) & GOS (great ormond street; 88%).
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Kaye et al
PET scan 10 women with AN & 12 healthy controls. Found increased activity of dopamine (plays part in interpretation of harm & pleasure) receptors. Suggests that people with AN are less likely to associate good feelings with food (as most people might
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reproductive suppression hypothesis -girls delay onset of puberty to avoid giving birth at a time when conditions are not good for offspring survival
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McKenzie et al
ognitive biases -in interviews, AN consistently estimated themselves larger/ heavier than their weight-matched controls.
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Pope et al
gender bias in AN “Bigorexia” (muscle without fat)
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McGuffin et al
MDD bio etiology. concordance rates of MDD in 177 same-sex mz & dz twins. mz= 46%, dz=20% Shows that genetics can contribute to up to nearly 50% of risk of MDD
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MDD cog etiology. state dependent memory -memory impairment found in cog performance tests of adults with MDD. However after 6 months of treatment, memory improved.
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MDD s/c etiology. culture: how mental illness is perceived. -low levels of western description of MDD in China: because they experience mental illness rather through somatic complaints (i.e. headache). Only 9% reported ‘depressed mood' as a symptom
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MDD bio vs cog etiologies: found that stressful life events (environmental pressure) increased predisposed genetic vulnerability to MDD. Known as ‘diathesis-stress model’
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anti-psychiatry movement, considered mental illness to be a myth & not a physical disability. Patients should have a right to decide whether or not they get treatment. -emic approach encourages a more idiographic approach (not generalising)
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Lancet 2003
ECT trials were more effective than simulated ECT, implying that there is little placebo effect in the treatment
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Khalid et al (2008)
longitudinal naturalistic study. Cardiff (UK) psychiatric hospital. Of the total 38 patients, 25 had reported an improvement in their symptoms and 21 had achieved remission
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Read & Arnold 2017
systematic review and meta-analysis; studies since 2009 comparing ECT and simulated ECT for MDD. 89 of the 91 studies lacked robust evidence of effectiveness. Partly because at least 60% of studies had the clients on medication at the same time
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Meta-analysis in England 1999 (biomedical approach to treatment ECT for MDD)
16,000 of ECT administrations showed that 59% did not or were not able to formally consent to treatment (also used for people with autism, unable to consent).
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Benin & Shindler
clients who are less satisfied with their clinician in early sessions report less improvement throughout treatment.
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Brown & Harris 1978, Laura & Flav 1992
a maj of people suffering from MDD because they are exposed to more vulnerability factors & less protective factors
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ABC model of CBT
(A=activating event, B=beliefs, C=consequence). Helps to identify events & biases which cause depressive thoughts, and then allow to intervene at various stages to minimise these feelings.
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Baer, 2003
MBCBT reduces risk of relapse of depression by 50%
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Burnstein et al 1994
Kin selection theory -lab exp: questionnaire asking how likely to help people at varying degrees of genetic relatedness from hypothetical situations: basic favors to ‘high risk’ scenarios → protect genetic pool - link Dawkins’ selfish gene theory
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Analyzed accounts of how people fled from a burning building. Found that when individuals were with unrelated group members before exit, they tended to become separated; those with family members before exit tended to stay together. (kin sel)
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Toi & Batson
Students listened to recordings of carol injured both her legs in an accident & asking for notes. The H-empathy group helped in both, low-empathy group only helped out of self-interest (i.e. in the high-cost condition: meet next year in class)
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Whiting & Whiting 1975
Naturalistic observation. 3-11 year olds. 6 countries: Kenya, Philippines, USA, Japan, India, Mexico. Most prosocial: Kenyan children. Most egoistic: American children
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Levine 2001
diffs in prosocial beh, 23 cities. Field exp: sent confederates to cities. Non emergency sits: drop pen, drop magazine, blind person crossing road. PPP, culture (ind/coll/ simpatia), walking speed. Most helpful: Rio de Janeiro. Least: Kuala Lumpur
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Shalev (1995)
12 victims direct exposure terrorist attack bus Israel. Interview straight after: (Impact of Event Scale: signs of PTSD), 'intrusive thoughts'. Interview 12 months after: 'avoidance coping'. Aka effects change/ develop with time.
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Schuster et al (2001)
560 ppts across USA 4 days after 9/11 via phone interviews. 90% had at least a small increase in stress (effect: across large geo area). Positive correlation between levels of stress & proximity to NY. 44% = very stressed.
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Olweus (1992)
biological evidence investigate cortisol levels (stress hormone) in response to intimidation/ bullying in hamsters. Put in cage with older hamster for 1 hour a day for 2 weeks (control: empty cage). Found elevated levels of cortisol for whole 2 weeks
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Carney & Hazler (2007)
94 6th grade students aged 9-14. Morning vs just before lunch (anticipatory stress). Questionnaire (holistic evidence). LT effects included low cortisol (hypocortisol: chronic stress & fatigue)
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Copeland et al (2013)
longitudinal & prospective. 1420 students from North Carolina in groups of 9, 11, and 13 years old. Self reported either bully only, victim only, bully & victim, neither. Annual tests. bullies&victims higher prevalence of mental disorders
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Sapouna & Wolke (2010)
reduce bullying in primary schools using preventive approach 23 primary schools: England & Germany 1127 children, avg age of 9 years Virtual Reality Therapy (VRT) called ‘FearNot!’ after 1st follow up, rates of victimisation greatly reduced
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Restorative justice
Criminal justice system focusing on rehabilitation of offenders through reconciliation with victims & the community at large. 85% victim satisfaction rate, 14% reduction in frequency of reoffending
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Sherman & Strang meta-analysis
Restorative justice: ound that victims felt reduced desire for revenge, was preferred over criminal justice & cost less
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Dunford (2000)
San Diego Navy Experiment. Compared outcomes of 2 groups receiving 6 months of group CBT 861 wives & abusive husbands. A similar % of men from all groups arrested 12 months following treatment (no sig diff)
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Feder & Dugan (2002)
Broward County Experiment. 404 males (aged 19-71) convicted of domestic violence: control group (probation as normal) OR treatment group (P + 26 wks group CBT→Duluth model). No sig diff../older offenders w/ long employment history highest attendance
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Nicholls 2000


diagnosis using classification manuals of children with eating disorders. DSM (64% IRR), ICD (36%) & GOS (great ormond street; 88%).

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Kaye et al


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McKenzie et al


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