PSYC RESEARCH METHODS

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  • Created by: Agne
  • Created on: 24-01-14 12:39
VARIABLES
FACTORS WHICH CHANGE IN A STUDY
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INDEPENDANT VARIABLE
VARIABLE MANIPULATED BY RESEARCHER
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DEPENDANT VARIALBE
VARIABLE MEASURED BY RESEARCHER
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EXTRANEOUS VARIABLES
FACTORS WITHIN A STUDY WHICH COULD CHANGE THE RESULTS BUT YOU COULD ACCOUNR FOR THEM BEFORE THE STUDY BEGINS
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CONFOUNDING VARIABLES
EXTRANEOUS VARIABLES WHICH HAVE NOT BEEN ACCOUNTED FOR AND THEREFORE DID END UP AFFECTING THE RESULTS
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DIRECTIONAL HYPOTHESIS
PREDICTS THE DIRECTION THE RESULTS WILL GO IN
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NON-DIRECTIONAL HYPOTHESIS
DOES NOT PREDICT THE DIRECTION THE RESULTS WILL GO IN
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SIGNIFICANCE
WHETHER THE RESULTS OF AN EXPERIMENT SHOW A BOG DIFFERENCE IN BEHAVIOUR OR JUST A SLIGHT DIFFERENCE
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EXPERIMENTS
SHOWS A DIFFERENCE BETWEEN TWO GROUPS BEHAVIOUR - THE ONLY RESEARCH METHOD TO USE AND IV AND DV
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SELF-REPORTS
MEASURES PEOPLE'S THOUGHTS AND OPINION ON TOPICS BY ASKING THEM QUESTIONS
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OBSERVATIONS
LOOKS AT BEHAVIOUR IN DIFFERENT SITUATION BUT DOES NOT MANIPULATE ANYTHING
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CORRELATIONS
LOOKS FOR A RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN TWO CO-VARIABLES
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CASE STUDIES
AN IN-DEPTH LOOK AT ONE PERSON OR A SMALL GROUP OF PEOPLE. OFTEN MAKES USE OF MORE THAN ONE OF THE OTHER RESEARCH METHODS (TRIANGULATION) AND COLLECTS BOTH QUALITATIVE AND QUANITATIVE DATA
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LAB EXPERIMENTS
CONDUCTED IN A CONTROLLED ENVIRONMENT WHERE THE IV IS DELBERATELY MANIPULATED
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STRENGTHS OF LAB EXPERIMENTS
HIGH LEVELS OF CONTROL OVERF EXTRANEOUS VARIABLES, IV CNA BE DIRECTLY MANIPULATED SO CAN ESTABLISH CAUSE AND EFFECT, CAN USE SCIENTIFIC EQUIPMENT WITHIN LAB EXPERIMENTS
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WEAKNESSES OF LAB EXPERIMENTS
ARTIFICIAL SET UP SO MAY LACK ECLOGICAL VALIDITY, DECEPTION MAY BE NECESSARY TO PREVENT DEMAND CHARACTERISTICS
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FIELD EXPERIMENTS
CONDUCTED IN THE PARTICIPANT'S NATURAL ENVIRONMENT BUT THE IV IS STILL MANIPULATED BY THE EXPERIMENTER
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QUASI EXPERIMENTS
THE IV CHANGES NATURALLY RATHER THAN BEING MANIPULATED BY THE RESEARCHER. CAN BE CONDUCTED IN A NATURAL OR CONTROLLED ENVIRONMENT
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STRENGHTS OF FIELD EXPERIMENTS
HAVE HIGH ECOLOGICAL VALIDITY AS THER PARTICIPANTS ARE IN THEIR NATURAL ENVIRONMENT, IV CNA BE MANIPULATED SO CAN SHOW CAUSE AND EFFECT
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WAEKNESSES OF FIELD EXPERIMENTS
LOW CONTROL OVER EXTRANEOUS VARIABLES SO WE ARE NOT CERTAIN OF CAUSE AND EFFECT
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STRENGTHS OF QUASI EXPERIMENTS
IV IS NOT DIRECTLY MANIPULATED SO THESE ARE MORE ETHICAL - YOUR ARE NOT HAVING TO PUT PEOPLE INTO CONDITIONS, THEY ARE IN THEM ALREADY
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WEAKNESSES OF QUASI EXPERIMENTS
IV IS NOT DIRECTLY MANIPULATED SO IT IS DIFFICULT TO SHOW TRUE CAUSE AND EFFECT
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INDEPENDANT MEASURE DESIGN (IMD)/INDEPENDANT GROUPS DESIGN (IGD)
THIS INVOLVES USING DIFFERENT PARTICIPANTS IN EACH EXPERIMENTAL CONDITION
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REPEATED MEASURE DESIGN (RMD)
THIS INVOLVES USING THE SAME PARTICIPANTS IN EACH EXPERIMENTAL CONDITION
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MATCHED PAIRS DESIGN (MPD)
THIS INVOLVES USINF DIFFERENT PARTICIPANTS IN EACH EXPERIMENTAL CONDITION, BUT THESE PARTICIPANTS HAVE BEEN MATCHED ON IMPORTANT VARIABLES
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INDIVIDUAL DIFFERENCES
ALSO KNOWN AS PARTICIPANT VARIALBE, THIS IS WHEN THE CHARACTERISTICS OF THE INDIVIDUALS WITHIN THE EXPERIMENT AFFECT THE RESULTS
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ORDER EFFECTS
EXTRANEOUS VARIALBES AFFECTING RMD. PARTICIPANTS GET BORED, TIRED OR HAVE HAD PRACTICE AFTER HAVING DONE ONE CONDITION SO DO EITHER BETTER OR WORSE IN THE SECOND ONE
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COUNTER-BALANCING
KNOWN AS ABBA DESIGN- HOW TO OVERCOME ORDER EFFECTS
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STRENGTHS OF IMD
NOT AFFECTS BY ORDER EFFECTS AS PARTICIPANTS ARE ONLY IN ONE CONDITION EACH, LESS LIKELY TO BE AFFECTED BY DEMAND CHARACTERISTICS AS PARTICIPANTS ARE NOT AWARE OF WHAT IS HAPPENING IN THE OTHER CONDITION
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WEAKNESSES OF IMD
INDIVIDUAL DIFFERENCES ARE A PROBLEM AS DIFFERNENT PARTICIPANTS ARE USED IN EACH CONDITION, LARGE SAMPPLES ARE OFTEN NEEDED AS YOU ONLY USE HALF THE PARTICIPANTS IN EAHC CONDITION
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STRENGTHS OF RMD
INDIVIDUAL DIFFERENCES ARE REDUCED AS THE SAME PARTICIPANTS ARE USED IN EACH CONDITION, THIS DESIGN COULD USE FEWER PARTICIPANTS AS ALL OF THEM ARE USED IN EACH CONDITION, SO IS MORE TIME AND COST EFFECTIVE
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WEAKNESSES OF RMD
CAN BE AFFECTED BY ORDER EFFECTS LIKE PRACTICE, FATIGUE OR BOREDOM SO COUNTERBALANCING IS NECESSARY, CAN GET DEMAND CHARACTERISTICS AS PARTICIPANTS MAY GUESS THE AIM OF THE STUDY AS THEY ARE COMPLETING BOTH CONDITIONS
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STRENGThs OF MPD
CONTROLS SOME INDIVIDUAL DIFFERENCES (BETTER THAN IMD), THIS AVOIDS SOME OF THE PROBLEMS THAT A RAMD PRESENTS EG. NOT AFFECTED BY ORDER EFFECTS OR DEMAND CHARACTERISTICS AS IT IS STILL DIFFERENT PARTICIPANTS IN EACH CONDITION
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WEAKNESSES OF MPD
TIME CONSUMING, IMPOSSIBLE TO MATCH ALL PARTICIPANTS VARIABLES
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Card 2

Front

VARIABLE MANIPULATED BY RESEARCHER

Back

INDEPENDANT VARIABLE

Card 3

Front

VARIABLE MEASURED BY RESEARCHER

Back

Preview of the back of card 3

Card 4

Front

FACTORS WITHIN A STUDY WHICH COULD CHANGE THE RESULTS BUT YOU COULD ACCOUNR FOR THEM BEFORE THE STUDY BEGINS

Back

Preview of the back of card 4

Card 5

Front

EXTRANEOUS VARIABLES WHICH HAVE NOT BEEN ACCOUNTED FOR AND THEREFORE DID END UP AFFECTING THE RESULTS

Back

Preview of the back of card 5
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